Mountain passes are also known as notches, gaps, saddles, cols, hauses, bwlch (Welsh), bealach or brennig (Gaelic). It is a path through a mountain range or above a ridge. If you are going by the lowest possible itinerary, a mountain pass is locally the uppermost spot on that itinerary. As a number of the famous mountain ranges have offered alarming obstacles to tourists, mountain passes have been useful since earlier than documented history and have played an important role in business, warfare, and relocation.
Mountain passes: An overview
Mountain passes are similar to the geometric theory of a topological saddle plane where there is a saddle point indicating the tallest spot amid two basins and the lowest spot beside a ridge. On a topographical map, you will see that passes are typified by curve lines with the form of hourglasses, which signify a low point in the middle of two higher spots.
Passes are frequently noticed just over the origin of a river, forming a type of bridge onto the origin of another river. The length of passes may be small, comprising sharp inclines to the pinnacle of the pass, or basins of extensive length, whose tallest spot can only be recognized through investigation.
Roads have been constructed, and in recent times railways, through passes. A number of tall and rocky passes may have passageways dug below to ensure quicker traffic movement round the year.
In addition to providing comparatively effortless journey between basins, passes also offer a way connecting two mountain summits with a minimum of decline. Consequently, it is normal for trails to join at a pass; this frequently makes them suitable itineraries even while trekking between a pinnacle and the bottom of a basin.
Some important Mountain Passes
Given below are some of the important mountain passes in the world:
The Nathula Pass or Nathu La Pass is a mountain pass in the Himalayan Mountain Range. It links the state of Sikkim in India with the Tibetan Autonomous Region in China. The elevation of the pass is 4,310 meters (14,140 ft) above mean sea level. The Nathula Pass creates a portion of a branch of the old Silk Road. The word “Nathu” refers to “listening ears” and La denotes “pass” in Tibetan language. The famous pass is also known as Natu La, Ntula, Natula or Nathula. The coordinates of the pass are 27°20′24″N and 88°51′0″E.
The Nathula Pass is one of the three business check posts between India and China. The other two are Lipulech or Lipulekh in Uttaranchal and Shipki La in Himachal Pradesh. Closed by India following the Indo-China War in 1962, Nathula Pass was opened once more in 2006 after a slew of two-sided business pacts. The opening of the Nathula Pass once more is likely to strengthen the economy of the area and play an important role in the increasing trade between China and India. At present, pacts between the two countries restrict trade over the pass to 29 categories of commodities from India and 15 from China. In addition, the opening cuts down the length of journey to major Hindu and Buddhist religious hubs in the area.
The Khbar Pass or Khyber Pass connects Pakistan and Afghanistan. This pass was an important segment of the old Silk Road. From time immemorial, the Khbar Pass has functioned as a business route amid South Asia and Central Asia. The Khyber Pass is also an important site for armed forces. The peak of the Khbar Pass is located at 5 km (3.1 miles) within Pakistan and the name of the place is Landi Kotal. The pass subsequently travels across the northeast portion of the Safed Koh Mountains. These mountains are a stretch of the Hindu Kush Mountain Range to the southeast. The elevation is 1,070 m or 3,510 ft.
The Karakoram Pass is the tallest pass on the prehistoric caravan itinerary amid Leh in Ladakh and Yarkand in the Tarim Valley. The pass ascends to an altitude of 5,540 m (18,171 ft). In Turkish language, the word Karakoram stands for “Black Gravel”.
The high elevation and absence of foodgrains were the main reasons for the casualties of innumerable pack animals. The itinerary through the pass was infamous for the trace of bones scattered beside the path. There is nearly no foliage on the access ways to the pass. The southern portion of the pass is more desolate than the north. Going over the lower Suget Pass or Suget Dawan is comparatively simple.
The Karakoram Pass is in a ridge amid two mountains and the breadth is around 45 meters (148 ft). There is no icecap or foliage and it is usually without snow because of the breezes. Temperatures are low, there are frequently strong breezes, snowstorms are regular, and the high elevation has an effect. Regardless of all these, the Karakoram Pass was regarded a comparatively unproblematic pass because of the steady climb on either sides and lack of summer snow and ice for the most part of the year. As a result, the pass was open for the most part of the year. There is no drivable way over the pass, and the pass presently stays sealed to all kinds of traffic movements.
The Gomal Pass is also known as the Gumal Pass. It is a mountain pass on the boundary of Afghanistan and southeast part of South Waziristan in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan. The name has been derived from the Gomal River. It is situated in the middle of the Bolan Pass and Khyber Pass.
The Bolan Pass is a mountain pass across the Toba Kakar Mountain Range in Balochistan Province in West Pakistan. It is located at a distance of 120 km from the boundary of Afghanistan.
Due to its important location, aggressors, merchants and migratory ethnic groups have also made use of the Bolan Pass as an entrance to and from Southern Asia. The pass has a lot of significance on the border of Baluchistan, linking Sibi and Jacobabad with Quetta, which has always held a significant position in the history of British Army operations in Afghanistan.
Conventionally, the Brahul of the Kurd clan are in control of the law and order condition in the Bolan Pass Area. This clan is still surviving in the current Balochistan region in Pakistan.
In 1837, intimidated by a probable Russian attack of South Asia through the Bolan and Khyber Passes, a diplomat was sent to Kabul to get the assistance of Dost Mohammed, the Emir. The British Armed Forces under the leadership of Sir John Keane, guided 12,000 personnel via the Bolan Pass and moved into Kandahar in February 1839, which was deserted by the princes of Afghanistan. From this place, they would move on to invade and bring down Ghazni.
In 1883, Sir Robert Groves Sandeman parleyed with Khudadad Khan, the Khan of Kalat and assured British dominance on the Bolan Pass in return of a yearly charge.
The Zozila or Zojila Pass is a tall mountain pass in India. It is situated on the Indian National Highway 1D in the middle of Leh in the west Himalayan Mountain Ranges and Srinagar . Although it is frequently denoted as Zojila Pass in the international press, the exact English version is Zoji Pass or just Zojila as the suffix “La” stands for pass in various languages spoken in the Himalayas. In contemporary languages of North India, 'Darra' and 'La' are both utilized interchangeably to denote pass.
Zoji La is 5.6 mi (9 km) from Sonamarg and offers an essential connection between Kashmir and Ladakh. It is located at an altitude of around 3,528 meters (11,575 ft), and is the second tallest pass following Fotu La pass on the Srinagar-Leh National Highway. The Zojila Pass frequently remains closed throughout the winter season, although the Border Roads Organization (BRO) is functioning to increase traffic for the most part of the year. The Beacon Force division of the BRO is in charge of cleaning and upkeep of the way during winter.
During the India-Pakistani War of 1947, Zoji La pass was taken hold of by Pakistani invaders in 1948 in their operation to seize Ladakh. Indian military got hold of the pass on 1st November in a heroic infantry attack with the code name Operation Bison, which accomplished victory mainly because of the sudden use of protective covering, then the maximum height at which protective covering had worked in warfare in the world.
The Shipki pass or Shipki La Pass is a mountain pass and boundary check post on the border between India and China. The Sutlej River moves into India from Tibet via this pass.
The pass is situated in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh in India and Autonomous Region of Tibet in PRC (People's Republic of China). The Shipki Pass is the third boundary post of India for doing business with China following Nathula pass in Sikkim , and Lipulekh pass in Uttarakhand. The pass is located nearby Khab town.
Important Mountain Passes in India
Given below are the names of the major mountain passes in India with their elevations:
|Asirgarh Pass||Madhya Pradesh|
|Bara-lacha-la Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||16,400|
|Banihal Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||9,291|
|Changla Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||17,800|
|Debsa Pass||Himachal Pradesh||17,520|
|Dhumdhar Kandi Pass|
|Goecha La Pass||Sikkim||16,207|
|Fotu La Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||13,451|
|Jelep La Pass||Sikkim||14,300|
|Indrahar Pass||Himachal Pradesh||14,473|
|Kunjum Pass||Himachal Pradesh||14,931|
|Khardung La Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||18,380|
|Lamkhaga Pass||Himachal Pradesh||17,336|
|Lungalacha La Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||16,600|
|Marsimik La Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||18,314|
|Nathu La Pass||Sikkim||14,140|
|Namika La Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||12,139|
|Rohtang Pass||Himachal Pradesh||13,051|
|Palakkad Gap Pass||Kerala||1,000|
|Sela Pass||Arunachal Pradesh||14,000|
|Sasser Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||17,753|
|Tanglang La Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||17,583|
|Sin La Pass||Uttarakhand||18,028|
|Zojila Pass||Jammu and Kashmir||12,400|
Last Updated on 02 February 2011