Haryana, a state in north India formed on 1 November 1966, has a very fertile land and is called the Green Land of India. The state of Delhi is landlocked on three sides by Haryana. The capital city of Haryana is Chandigarh, which is also the capital of Punjab. The largest city of Haryana is Faridabad. The state of Haryana is stretched over an area of 44, 212 sq. km.
Haryana can be divided into two natural areas; sub-Himalayan Terai and Indo-Gangetic plain. The plain is fertile and slopes from north to south with a height above sea level, averaging between 700 and 900 ft. South-west of Haryana is dry, sandy and barren. Haryana has no perennial river. The Ghaggar river flows through Haryana and passes through northern fringes of the state.
The region now known as Haryana - the Madhyama Dis (middle region) of the Later Vedic Period (c. 800-500 BC) - has been the birthplace of the Hindu religion. It was in this area that the first hymns of the Aryans were sung and the most ancient manuscripts were written. Urban settlements in Ghaggar Valley date from 3000 BC. From about 1500 BC, Aryan tribes became the first of many groups to invade the region. The area was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which gave India its Hindi name, Bharat. The epic battle between the Kauravas and Pandavas, recorded in the Mahabharata, took place at Kurukshetra. In the 3rd century BC, the area was incorporated into the Mauryan Empire. It later became an important power base for the Mughals; the battle of Panipat in 1526 established Mughal rule in India.
Below is a table representing important facts about Haryana
Capital of Haryana
The capital city of Haryana is Chandigarh, which is even the capital of the state of Punjab.
Largest city of Haryana
The largest city of Haryana is Faridabad.
Total covering area of Haryana
The state of Haryana is stretched over an area of 44, 212 sq. km.
Latest population of Haryana
The total population of this state, as per the report published after Census 2011, is 25, 353, 081 with a population density of 573.4 per sq. km.
Literacy rate of Haryana
This north Indian state has got a literacy rate of 71.4 %.
Official languages of Haryana
The official languages of this industrial hub of India are Haryanavi, Punjabi and English.
Location of Haryana
Geographically located at 30.73° N and 76.78° E, the state of Haryana lies in the northern part of the country of India. With some of its parts included in the National Capital Region (NCR), the state is bordered by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab towards its north, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand towards its east and Rajasthan towards its south and west. Read More ...
The total population of this state, as per the Census 2011, is 25, 353, 081 with a population density of 573 per sq. km. The sex ratio in the state is 877 females per 1000 males. Hindus have the majority population in the state and people from religions such as Muslims, Sikhs, Jains and Christians account for the rest of the population. People belonging to different communities including Dalits and Valmikis also constitute the population of the state.
Economy and Infrastructure
Most of the land in Haryana is suitable for agriculture and 60 percent is irrigated. More than three-fourths of the population is employed in agriculture. The state is a major producer of wheat and rice. Other important crops include oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, potatoes, pulses (edible seeds gathered from pea and bean crops), barley, millet, and maize. Production has been stimulated by Haryana's closeness to the markets of New Delhi and (Old) Delhi, good road and rail links, and the use of fertilizers and improved seeds. Haryana is renowned for its prize-winning steers and dairy cattle. The state has an extensive rail system. Delhi, on Haryana's eastern boundary, serves as the main air traffic hub.
Government and Politics
Like other states in India, Haryana is also governed by a Governor who has a ceremonial position in the state. The Head of the state government of Haryana is the Chief Minister who has the executive powers. It has a single-chamber legislature with 90 seats. The state sends 15 members to Parliament: five to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and ten to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). Local government is based in 21 districts of the state. Major political parties in the state are Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Lok Dal etc. More.....
As per the Census 2011, this north Indian state has got a literacy rate of 76.64 %. There are many government-run and private schools in the state which are either affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or Haryana Board of School Education (HBSE). The HBSE conducts annual examination twice every year for all the levels of school education. Cities like Rohtak, Sonepat and Gurgaon have become the education hub in the state with many higher education colleges. There are many technology, research management based colleges in the state. The National Brain Research Centre in Haryana is the only institute in the country which is committed to neuroscience research and education.
Like other states of India, Haryanvi is the mother tongue of the people of the state. However, it is considered as a dialect and not an official language. The official languages of this state are Hindi, Punjabi and English. Besides Haryanvi, Bangru, Bagri and Ahirwati are other dialects which are spoken in the state.
Society and Culture
Hindus constitute about 90 percent of Haryana's population. Most of the state's Sikh population is located in the northeast and northwest; Muslims are concentrated in the south-eastern districts adjoining Delhi. Jats (a peasant caste) form the backbone of Haryana's agricultural economy. Although roughly 75 percent of the population is rural, cities have been growing rapidly as commercial, industrial, and agricultural marketing centres.
The state of Haryana, being one of the major industrial hubs of the country is quite well connected to the neighbouring states as well as other parts of India by air, road and railways.
Airways: The state is connected to Delhi, Leh, Jammu and Srinagar through the Indian Airlines flights to and from the Chandigarh Airport. Besides that, there are public aerodromes located at Bhiwani, Hisar, Karnal, Narnaul and Pinjore. Vayudoot Services links Haryana to Delhi, Gaggar and Kulu via Chandigarh.
Railways: Chandigarh Railway Station, which is Northern Railway's terminus, connects the state to Bombay, Kalka, Delhi and several other main cities of India. Other linking railway stations are situated at Ambala, Hisar, Jakhal, Jind, Kalka, Kurukshetra, Panipat and Rohtak.
Roadways: The state is connected both internally and externally through roads. Apart from that, proximity to the national capital of Delhi helps the state easily connect to the other parts of the country through a number of State as well as National Highways.
The state of Haryana has got a network of 44 tourist complexes to promote tourism. Some of the most visited tourist places in Haryana are as follows:
- Badhkal Lake
- Dumdama Lake
- Magpie Surajkund
- Morni Hills
- Prithaviraj Ki Kutchery
- Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary
- Tilyar Lake
- Yadavindra Gardens
Climatic condition of Haryana
The location of the state in the northern plains of India makes the place very hot during summer and too cold during winter. However, the different climatic conditions of this state of northern India experiences three distinctive seasons. The months of May and June are the hottest months where temperature rises up to 50° C whereas the months of December and January are the coldest months of the year where the temperature can go down to as low as 1° C. The rainy season in Haryana sets in during the month of July and continues till September. 80 per cent of the total rainfall occurs during this period, which even causes flood at times.
Best time to visit the state
Though Haryana can be visited throughout the year, but the period in between the months of October and March is the best time to visit this north Indian state.
What is Haryana famous for?
This state is historically known for being a part of the famous Kuru region of the country as well as the cradle to the Indus Valley Civilization. However, presently, the place is a major hub of automobile and IT (Information Technology) industries of India. It is the nation's leading manufacturer of tractors, passenger cars and two-wheelers. Besides that, the state leads other states in terms of milk and food grain production in India.
Hotels of Haryana
In keeping pace with its vast tourist potential, hotels are mushrooming all over the state. Known for their traditional hospitality and exquisite cuisine, they make your stay memorable.
Reference: Census 2011
Last Updated on : October 8, 2014