If you love forests, then Jharkhand is the state for you. The meaning of the name given to the state Jharkhand is 'the land of forests'. Moreover, the state has rich flora and fauna. To have a complete panoramic view of nature and beauty, one can visit the zoological gardens and national parks. The state is situated in the eastern part of India. In the year 2000, Jharkhand split from southern Bihar and was formed into another state.
Jharkhand is encircled by the Indian states of West Bengal (east), Uttar Pradesh (west), Chhattisgarh (west), Bihar (north) and Odisha (south).
Some writers believe that way back in Magadha Empire, Jharkhand named cultural entity was already present. As and when passed and the Mughals came in, this area was called Kukara. The British came over to rule after 1765 and this land was named as Jharkhand. Tilka Manjhi from Santal tribal was the leader in revolting against the British rule in 1771. Immediately after that, in 1779, Bhumij tribe fought against the Bristish for the current state of West Bengal. Much after that, unrest was seen in Chero tribe at Palamau. The tribal revolts in 1832 created a major impact on the British administration based in Jharkhand. One of the longest and last tribal revolts 'Birsa Munda' broke out in 1895 and went on till 1900.
Jharkhand - Facts
Below is a table representing important facts about Jharkhand
The state is situated on Santhal Parganas and Chhota Nagpur Plateau. Most of Jharkhand comes under the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Rivers like Koel, Brahmani, Damodar, Subarnarekha and Kharkai flow here. One can enjoy the scenic beauty of forests, hills and plateaus from the Lodh Falls. The dense forest of Jharkhand has a huge population of Asian elephants and tigers. Jharkhand's soil content consists of stones and rocks disintegration. The soil compositions are divided further and are found around the state. One can find red soil in the Rajmahal area and Damodar valley. In the areas like Barkagaon, Jhumri Telaiya, Koderma, some areas of Mandar hill have micacious soil that contain mica particles. Dhanbad and Hazaribagh have sandy soil and the major part of Rajmahal area has black soil. Palamu, Dumka, western Ranchi, and Singhbhum and Santhal Parganas regions have laterite soil.
Government and Politics
Chief Minister is the head of the government of Jharkhand and the Governor is the state's de jure head. Many national and state level political parties participate during the Jharkand elections. The most interested parties in Jharkhand elections are on a national level like the BJP, Indian National Congress and Communist Party of India (CPI). As far as the state-level parties are concerned, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) is one of the most prime political parties. Several regional registered parties take immense interest in Jharkhand politics, but they don't have major political impact yet.
As per the 2011 census, the state's literacy rate is 67.63%. The male literacy of the state is 78.45% and the female literacy is 56.21%. Moreover, nine districts of the state have the literacy rate above average. The state has both privately run as well as state-run schools. The mode of teaching depends and varies from one school to another. Some of the well known schools in Jharkhand are De Nobili School, DAV Hehal, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, St Thomas School, Chinmaya Public School, St. Xavier's, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Shishu Mandir, Sacred Heart School, Loyola school, Surendranath centenary School, etc. After Jharkhand was formed, four different projects - DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL and KGBV - were introduced by the Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) in order to spread awareness of primary-level education. However, because of slow pace of work, the government has not yet achieved 100% enrolment of students in schools. More Detail...
Jharkhand is India's second largest mineral wealth producer followed by Chhattisgarh. Minerals such as iron ore, copper, coal, uranium, bauxite, mica, limestone and graphite are found in the state. Because of its rich mineral resources, the state expects its per capita income to increase in the years to come. For 2011, the state's gross domestic product is USD 21.7 billion. The state comprises of all the well known industrialised cities Bokaro Steel City, Ranchi, Ramgarh and Dhanbad. Sindri (Dhanbad) had the largest fertiliser industry, which has now shut down. Jamshedpur has the first ever iron and steel factory. Bokaro is also Asia's biggest steel plant. Gomia has the largest explosives at Bokaro. It was also indicated that NTPC will commence the production of coal, which will bring in an investment of around Rs 1,800 crore. More Detail...
The current population of the state is 32.96 million (males: 16.93 million; females: 16.03 million). The state comprises of 24 districts and 32,620 villages. Merely 8,484 villages have connectivity. Out of this number, 28% of the people consist of tribes and 12% of the population are from scheduled caste. Urbanisation and industrialisation has affected these regions adversely. Around 68.5% people follow Hinduism, 13.8% follow Islam, 13% people follow Animisitic Sarna, and 4.1% follow Christianity. The remaining population follow Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. The state has many tribal communities like Asur, Binjhia, Gond, Ho, Kharia, Kharwar, Banjara, Bathundi, Mal Paharia, Chik Baraik, Korba, Birhor, Mahli, Khond, Sauriya Paharia, Kisan, Korwa, Mal Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Santhal, Sauria Paharia, Savar, Sabar, Parahiya, Birajia, Hill Kharia, etc.
Because this state is being majorly dominated by tribes, nature is considered as a vital and important part of their culture and lives. People buy the sacred trees and planted them in the courtyard as a part of their tradition. A couple of rituals followed by the people are Jitia Puja, Karma Puja, Sarhul, etc. During Makar Sankranti, people celebrate Tusu Fair or Poush Mela, which is actually a festival of harvesting. This is more of a folk belief and is a very colourful and bright celebration. The entire Chotanagpur Plateau Region celebrates the Karam Festival with pomp and show. After the Kunwaar-Shukl-Paksh, it is celebrated for 15 days. In order to prepare for the festival, the people buy new clothes, sindoor, oil, daliya, and prepare dishes with culinary items. The boys and girls are treated with utmost importance by their respective families and are given Karam clothes, which indicate that they are unmarried.
People predominantly speak Santali in Jamtara, Godda, Sahibganj, Dumka, Pakur, Saraikela-Kharsawan districts, and east of Singhbhum. People speak Mundari in parts of Ranchi, Khunti, West Singhbhum, Latehar districts, Simdega, Gumla, etc. People speak Ho in Saraikela-Kharswan districts and West Singhbhum. More Detail...
Jharkhand has a dense train route. Most districts are well connected via railway. Apart from that, Jharkhand has an airport in Ranchi, called as the Birsa Munda Airport. The Airports Authority of India manages this domestic airport. It is exactly situated in Hinoo region, which is around seven kilometres from the city. Moreover, the road transport in the urban cities is well developed. These buses come at a frequency of five to ten minutes at the national highway. One can travel from the tribal areas and villages to the prime districts by bus. Also, the state's Transport Department generates maximum revenue for the state. Urban Development Department provides the bus service under permits by Transport Department's Regional Offices in Dhanbad, Ranchi and Jamshedpur. Many taxis and auto rickshaw are well connected via road.
Last Updated on : September 19, 2014