On 2nd April 1970, the state of Meghalaya became an autonomous state and later on 21st January 1972, it became a full-fledged state. The capital of Meghalaya is Shillong.
The Meghalaya government takes all kinds of action following the parliament laws. The Union can direct the state government whenever it finds it necessary.
The basic structure of the government in Meghalaya is given below:
The ministers execute the state government functions under the government at Meghalaya. The chief minister heads the council. The Meghalaya governor appoints the Meghalaya chief minister and the remaining ministers. The cabinet members as well as the state ministers are included in the council.
The governor represents the constitutional head of the Meghalaya state government. All the actions of the governor are based on the decision of the ministers. In case of a few exceptions, he can exercise his authority.
He is the state government legal adviser of the topmost level. In the supreme court, he can represent the government of Meghalaya in case of major cases. The advocate general can participate in the Legislative Assembly proceedings.
The political parties of Meghalaya include many important national parties and parties of the state level. The Indian National Congress is the most important national political party in Meghalaya. It is the current ruling party of Meghalaya. The other important national party is the Bharatiya Janata Party. Among the state level political parties, important names are the Meghalaya Nationalist Congress Party and the Garo National Party, but the present biggest party is the Meghalaya Democratic Front.
Meghalaya Nationalist Congress Party
The state parties of Meghalaya play a very significant role in the state's politics. It is quite obvious given the tribal and ethnic affiliations of the many inhabitants of the state come up with problems that are specific to the community. Meghalaya Nationalist Congress Party of Meghalaya operated as a state level party for a very short time, however it was more of a break-off from the national parties rather than a state party in the strict sense of the term. Meghalaya Nationalist Party had a brief existence in the state in the December of 2003.
History of Meghalaya Nationalist Congress Party
Meghalaya Nationalist Congress Party in Meghalaya had a very short life. Formed on December 15, 2003 by Mr. Cyprian Sangma with disgruntled members of the Nationalist Congress Party, it became a considerable part of the state legislative assembly. After performing satisfactorily in the elections and securing as many four cabinet berths in the Congress led government of D.D. Lapang, the party soon merged with the Indian National Congress. That was on December 21 of the same year.
Meghalaya legislature is the central law making body of the state. Meghalaya legislature follows a unicameral structure which includes the legislative assembly which at present consists of 60 members from the ruling party and the Opposition. The speaker, with clear assistance from the deputy speaker, supervises the workings of the state legislature. Legislature at Meghalaya is the main body of the state government.
Speaker and Deputy Speaker
The speaker is the supreme authority of the state legislature. The entire proceedings of the legislature of Meghalaya are held under the able supervision of the honorable Speaker of Meghalaya Legislative Assembly. Sri Martin M. Danggo, educationists and Indian National Congress member is the speaker of the Meghalaya legislature. The legislature in Meghalaya is highly benefited from the service of Sri P.W. Muktieh as the deputy speaker. This long time loyal congress MLA has been a driving force in the state's political scenario for a very long time.
Whenever the legislative assembly of Meghalaya is convened, the elected representatives of the Assembly run the business of law making and amendment. It is the foremost law giving body of the state. The legislative assembly of Meghalaya consists of 60 members. This body includes the members of the ruling party and the opposition with the members of the coalition and the alliance parties. They are selected from the 60 different assembly constituencies in the state. 55 of these seats are reserved for ST candidates and the remaining 5 are general seats. They are wholly devoted to the well being of the state and is the most important link in the state's governance.
The twenty first state of India, Meghalaya was given the status of an independent state on April 2nd, 1970 after it was chipped off from Assam. Meghalaya follows a unicameral Legislature which is based upon adult franchise and consists of 60 members. It is constituted under section 73 of the Representation of the People Act 1951.
General Elections of the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly took place in the years 1972, 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2003. Presently there are fifty five reserved seats and five unreserved seats in the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly.
The 1st session of the Legislative Assembly of Meghalaya took place on March 25th, 1972. The then acting speaker was Shri Jor Manik Syiem.
Governor, Speaker, Chief Minister and Leader of the Opposition
The speaker and the governor are at the apex of the legislative assembly. The present governor of the state of Meghalaya is Ranjit Shekhar Mooshahary whereas the speaker of the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly is Shri Charles Pyngrope. Chief Minster Dr. Mukul Sangma heads the legislative proceedings. The leader of opposition is Shri Conrad K. Sangma.
Meghalaya judiciary is a mix of the district benches of the Guwahati high court and the district councils formed in accordance to the sixth schedule of the Indian constitution. While in many parts around Shillong, the circuit bench of the Guwahati High Court tries cases on the basis of the codes of civil and criminal procedures of the Indian penal codes, the more faraway regions of the Khasi and the Garo hills have cases tried according to their indigenous juridical customs.
Meghalaya judiciary falls under the jurisdiction of the Guwahati High Court. A special circuit bench of the Guwahati High Court looks after the implementation of judiciary in Meghalaya at the areas around Shillong that fall under the direct jurisdiction of the Indian Penal code. The Sessions Judge of Shillong bench is vested with the responsibility to try out the civil cases in accordance to the code of civil procedure as laid down by the Indian constitution. The Chief Judicial magistrate supervises the criminal cases.
The present officer in charge of the district and the sessions judges' offices is also the Additional Deputy Commissioner of Meghalaya judiciary, and has the responsibility to ensure the proper functioning of the rules of the Administration of Justice in the East Khasi Hills region.
The district councils are an unique feature in the judiciary at Meghalaya. The district councils laid down by the sixth schedule of the Indian constitution are responsible to safeguard the rights and the customs of the various indigenous tribes of the various rural and mountainous areas of the state. They judge on the basis of the age-old judicial customs of the tribes and form an integral part of the judiciary of Meghalaya.
Last Updated on 11 March 2013