Mizoram is one of the seven Northeastern states of India, bordered by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) to its east and south, Bangladesh to its west, and the states of Manipur, Assam, and Tripura to its north.
Mizoram means 'Land of the Highlanders' and its local language is Mizo. The Mizo Hills, which dominate the state's topography, rise to more than 2000 m (6560 ft) near the Myanmar border. Aizawl, the state capital, is 1220 m (4000 ft) above sea level.
The Tropic of Cancer runs through the heart of Mizoram, and hence, it has a pleasantly temperate climate throughout the year. A land of steep hills and deep gorges, Mizoram's highest peak 'The Blue Mountain' rises to a height of 2165 metres. Important rivers that flow through this hilly state are Tlawang, Sonai, Tuivawl, Kolodine and Kamaphuli.
Mizoram has a single-chamber Legislative Assembly of 40 seats. The state sends two members to the Indian Parliament: one to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and one to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). The state has eight districts.
Tourism of Mizoram
The hilly city Aizawl, located nearly 4,000 feet above sea-level, is a religious and cultural centre of Mizoram where indigenous handicrafts are also available. Champhai is a beautiful resort on the Myanmar border. Tamdil, a natural lake with virgin forest, is 60 km from Aizawl and 10 km from tourist resort of Saitual, Vantawng falls, five km from hill station Thezawl, are the highest and most beautiful waterfalls in Mizoram. The department of tourism has opened tourist lodge at Aizawl, Lunglei, Champhai and wayside restaurant at Thingdawl, Hnahthial, recreational centre at Beraw Tiang and Alpine picnic hut at District Park near Zobawk. More Details...
|Facts on Mizoram|
|Population (Census 2011)||1,097,206|
|Area||21,081 sq km|
|No. of District||8|
|Principal Languages||Mizo and English|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||91.58%|
History and Geography
Little is known of Mizoram's early history. Between 1750 and 1850 the Mizo (formerly called Lushai) tribes migrated from the nearby Chin Hills and subjugated the indigenous population; these similar tribes were assimilated into their own society. The Mizo developed an autocratic political system based on some 300 hereditary chieftainships. The tribes of Mizoram remained unaffected by foreign political influence until the British annexed Assam in 1826 under the Treaty of Yandabo. During the next decades, Mizo raids into British territory led to occasional punitive expeditions by the British. Although not formally annexed until the early 1890s, the region had come under British control two decades earlier.More Details...
Society and Culture
The Mizos are divided into several tribes - the Lushais, Pawis, Paithes, Raltes, Pang, Himars, Kukis etc. Society is based largely around tribal villages. The chief's house and the zawlbuk (community house for young, single men) are the focus of village life. Mizo and English are the official languages. The literacy rate in Mizoram is about 92 percent, one of the highest in India. More than 80 percent of the population is Christians; the great majority is Protestants who were converted by missionaries during the 19th century. There are Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu minorities. The nomadic Chakmas practice a combination of Hinduism, Buddhism, and animism (the worship of nature deities and other spirits).More Details...
Government of Mizoram
For the politically inclined people, a brief study on the government of Mizoram will be of much interest. Like every other Indian state, Mizoram government is also headed by the Chief Minister. He leads council of ministers who are responsible to an elected legislature. The Governor of Mizoram is the head of the state. The legislative assembly of Mizoram has 40 members. They are elected by the people of the state every five years. The High Court in Mizoram is situated at Guwahati. Aizawl, the capital of the state, has a bench of the Mizoram High Court. More Details...
Economy and Infrastructure
About three-quarters of the population of Mizoram earn their living from agriculture. Both terraced cultivation and jhum (shifting) tillage (in which tracts are cleared by burning and sown with mixed crops) are practiced. The greater number of people in farming has reduced the traditional eight-year jhum cycle. Hence, there has been an accompanying decline in yields.
Mizoram is famous for the fibreless ginger. Paddy, maize, mustard, sugarcane, sesame and potatoes are the other prominent crops grown in this area. Small-scale irrigation projects are being developed to increase the crop yield.
There are no major industries in the state. Small-scale industries include sericulture, handloom and handicrafts industries, sawmills and furniture workshops, oil refining, grain milling, and ginger processing.
Hotels of Mizoram
The state has hotels of star and non star category catering to the needs of the tourists visiting Mizoram. Besides it has resorts, restaurants and cafes which cater to the needs of all segments of travellers. Mizoram is one of the 'Seven Sister States' in northeast India. The state is regarded as the territory of the Mizo community which consists of Lushei, Hmar, Lai, Paite, Gangte, Mara, and various other minor clans. The state of Mizoram has common boundaries with the Indian states of Assam, Tripura, and Manipur. It shares international boundaries with Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh. It is the 23rd state of the country and achieved statehood on 20 February 1987. More Details...
The capital of the Indian state of Mizoram is Aizawl and it is also the biggest city of the state. More Details...
The state covers a total area of 8,139.4 sq miles or 21,081 sq. km.
According to the census performed in 2011, the population of the state is 10,97,206.
The state of Mizoram features a pleasant weather. The temperatures are comfortable during the summer months and they range between 68°F and 84°F or 20°C and 29°C. In the winter months, the weather is not so cold and the temperatures range between 52°F and 70°F or 11°C to 21°C. The climate of the state is mostly controlled by torrential rains and the area experiences a large volume of precipitation during the months of May to September. During the winter months, there is insignificant amount of precipitation. The mean amount of precipitation in Mizoram is 100 inches or 254 cm every year. In the city of Aizawl, the volume of precipitation is approximately 82 inches or 208 cms. In Lunglei, another significant place in the state, the amount of precipitation is around 138 inches or 350 cms.
Rivers in Mizoram
The name of the longest river in the state is Chhimtuipui and another name of this river is Kaladan. The source of this river is situated in the Chin state in Myanmar and the river flows across the Lawngtlai and Saiha districts in the southern end of the state. Subsequently, the stream reverts to the Rakhine province of Myanmar and ultimately pours into the Bay of Bengal close to Akyab, an important harbour in Sittwe, Myanmar. Despite the fact that various other torrents and rivers flow through the mountainous areas of the state, the moskt significant and helpful rivers in the state of Mizoram are as follows:
The Chhimtuipui River has its source in Myanmar and is a major stream in the southern part of the state. The river has four branches and it flows in an irregular fashion. The western section of the state is irrigated by the Khawthlang Tuipui River and its branches. Various major townships and communities such as Chittagong of Bangladesh are located at the opening of the stream. Prior to the achievement of freedom, other areas of India could only be reached via the river itineraries through Chittagong to the south and Cachar to the north. Later on, access was discontinued once there was division in the subcontinent and East Pakistan (present Bangladesh) was created. More Details...
Lakes in Mizoram
The largest lake of the state is the Palak Lake and it is located in the Saiha district of the state. The Saiha district forms an important part of the state of Mizoram, India. The Palak Lake encompasses an area of approximately 74 acres or 30 hectares. Another popular lake in the state is the Tamdil Lake which is a natural lake. It lies at a distance of approximately 53 miles or 85 km from Aizawl. Unfortunately, the state of Mizoram is a highly earthquake prone area and it falls under zone 5. Minerals found in the area include the following:
- Arenaceous and argillaceous sandstones
Petroleum and gas exploration operations are going on in the state relentlessly.
Most of the people of the state belong to the various clans and communities who are ethnically or linguistically associated with each other. These clans and tribes are jointly named as Mizos where Mi stands for People and Zo stands for Hill. Other than Mizoram, these people inhabit places in Bangladesh, Myanmar, and other Northeastern states of India. The Mizo tribes comprise Lushei, Hmar, Lai, Paite, and Mara. The Hmar people are again subdivided into clans like Lungtau, Thiek, Khawbung, Darngawn, and Zote.
Popular cultural festivals
The popular cultural festivals in Mizoram, India are as follows:
- Mim Kut
The Mim Kut festival is normally observed in the months of August and September, following the cultivation of maize. People observe this festival by dancing, singing, drinking, and eating.
- Pawl Kut
The Pawl Kut festival refers to a straw harvesting festival since the word Pawl stands for straw. The festival is normally held in the month of December every year.
- Chapchar Kut
The Chapchar Kut is one more important festival which is observed in the month of March, following the conclusion of their most difficult job of Jhum maneuver, that is, forest-cleaning (removal of the leftovers of burning).
Popular dance forms in Mizoram
The popular dance forms in the state are as follows:
- Cheraw - The most vibrant and unique dance of the state
- Chheih Lam
Languages spoken in Mizoram
The official language of the state is Mizo. However, English, due to its significance in academics and government functions, is predominantly used. The Mizo language is blended with other languages such as the Lai, Mara, and Hmar. More Details...
Major religions in Mizoram
Most of the people of the state belong to the Christian community. There are many churches in the state and some of the important churches are as follows:
- Baptist Church of Mizoram
- Mizoram Presbyterian Church
- The Salvation Army
- United Pentecostal Church
- Kohhran Thianghlim
- The Seventh-day Adventist Church
- Lairam Jesus Christ Baptist Church(LIKBK)
- Roman Catholic
- Independent Church of India (ICI)
- Evangelical Church of Maraland
- Evangelical Free Church of India (EFCI)
Mizoram comprises of a formal system of education which ranges from elementary to university education, training to technical courses. By census 2011, the state has the third highest literacy rate in the country i.e 91.58%. There are about 3900 schools in the state which are either privately owned or are fully or partially managed by the government. The Ministry of Education looks after the colleges, universities and other educational institutions in the state. Mizoram University, which is the state University, has several departments and two professional institutions as well. Some of the popular higher education institutions in the state are ICFAI University, National Institute of Technology Mizoram, and Regional Institute of Paramedical and Nursing, Aizawl.
The state is not easily accessible due to inadequate transportation. As more than 90% of the area of the state is covered with narrow hills, construction of roads was a difficult and challenging task for the authorities. There is a road network of almost 8,500 kilometres in the state which is connected to national highways as well. National highways, state highways and district roads cover the majority of the area of the state. Near the state's capital Aizawl, there is Lengpui Airport which is linked to the Kolkata Airport. It is also linked to Silchar Airport of Assam which is about 200 kms away from Aizawl. Silchar in Assam is also the nearest railway station to the state which is at a distance of about 180 kms from the capital of the state. There is also a helicopter service which connects the capital city to other cities of the states such as Lunglei, Serchhip, Kolasib, Hnahthial, Chawngte etc.
Last Updated on : November 3, 2014