The U. S. based National Space Society (NSS), an independent non-profit educational membership organisation, has conferred 2015 Space Pioneer Award in the science and engineering category to India's Mars Orbiter programme team, as per the NSS society. In a statement issued by it in Washington on Monday, 12 January 2015, it said, "This award will be presented to an ISRO representative during the National Space Society's 2015 International Space Development Conference, the 34th ISDC, to be held in Toronto, Canada". The conference is scheduled from 20 May to 24 May.
According to the NSS, India's Mars Orbiter programme achieved two milestones, first being the foremost Indian spacecraft to have gone into orbit around Mars in its very first attempt, which no other country has done before in its very first try. Secondly, the spacecraft, with a high resolution camera, is clicking full-disk colour images of Mars, which has rarely been taken ever, and the spacecraft is in an elliptical orbit with a high apoapsis.
The Mars Orbiter was launched on 5 November 2013 and it went into Mars on 24 September 2014. Mylswamy Annadurai heads the Mars Orbiter programme team located in Bangalore.
India's Mission Mars: A giant technology leap
Let's have a look at the successful India's Mars Mission:
- India's ambitious mission to Mars (Mangalyaan) took off at 2.38 pm on 5 November 2013.
- The rocket PSLV C 25 was blasted from the ISRO space center at Sriharikota.
- The satellite weighed 1,350 kg approximately and 500 scientists worked on the project at Bengaluru.
India's ambitious Rs. 450-crore, robotic Mars Orbitor Mission (MOM) carrying satellite Mangalyaan, took off from the Satish Dhawan Space Center at Sriharikota at 2.38 pm on 5 November 2013. During its launch, it was speculated that if it successfully reached Mars, it would indeed be a landmark achievement for both India and its iconic space agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
The mission primarily constituted the launching of India's unmanned, 300-day, first inter-planetary satellite to Mars. ISRO had already revealed its preparedness with a rehearsal held on October 31 for a smooth launch.
India's daring venture
The successful execution of the programme was about to make India the fourth nation in the world to do so, after the US - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European consortium - European Space Agency (ESA), and Russia - Roscosmos had led their respective missions. Until its launch only 21 of the 51 missions by many countries had been successful. Russia's last mission carrying a Chinese satellite had failed in November 2011. Thus there was a great excitement to see India become the first Asian nation to achieve this feat.
The near 45-meter rocket PSLV C 25 carrying the 1,350 kg satellite was mounted on the pedestal and kept in a state of readiness (in a record 15 months) to blast off. The movements were tracked by vehicle tracking stations at Port Blair and Bylalu near Bengaluru, and an outstation one at Brunei. The terminals-on-sea lodged aboard the ships SCI Nalanda and SCI Yamuna, belonging to the Shipping Corporation of India helped to track and capture the precise moments of satellite injection into the earth's orbit. This process took approximately 40 minutes.
Thereafter, the satellite orbit the earth for 20-25 days before exiting it for Mars on a nine-month journey. Five important scientific instruments such as photometer, methane sensor, mars composition analyser, etc., were in place in the payload along with the satellite to help navigate, monitor and capture information on Mars' temperature, colour composition, water loss, methane composition, mapping the Mars' surface, etc.
As per ISRO, the main objective of the MOM was technological in nature - that is, to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of the interplanetary mission. NASA coordinated and provided support for its communication requirements.
This satellite thus became a part of the bouquet of India's operational satellites which account for the largest network globally. About 500 - 1000 scientists worked and checked out the overall specifics of the mission.
Fame, but Flak too
Earlier, India had came in for flak too when it had announced its decision to go ahead with the Mars mission in August 2012. Things such as "wasteful expenditure", "instead, money could be utilized to build toilets", etc., were being said. However, after its successful Chandrayaan mission, India had profitably mastered the art of putting up satellites, as was seen last when it sent 10 satellites belonging to different countries together in one go. This was hence an opportune time to showcase India's development in the field of space technology.
Mars Mission underwent successful first course-correction
India's first mission to the Red Planet, Mangalyaan, successfully finished its first mid-course correction on 11 December 2013 at 6:30 in the morning. "The mid-course correction was done some 2.9 million km away from Earth. The spacecraft was first re-oriented and then its smaller rockets fired to make the operation successful," an official of the ISRO had quoted.
Mangalyaan, the spacecraft, was now in an uncharted territory, thus becoming the first Indian spacecraft to travel so far. The ISRO accomplished this Rs. 450-crore operation successfully when the spacecraft was at a distance of 2.9 million km from Earth. 24 September 2014 was the projected date for the spacecraft to reach Mars.
Mission completes 100 days
The first interplanetary mission of India to Mars completed one-third of its journey on 13 February 2014. In the 100 days from the day of launch, the orbiter travelled a distance of 190 million km. By the end of the journey, orbiter travelled more than 680 million km.
After the 100 days completion by Mars Orbiter mission an official of ISRO had revealed, "The spacecraft's health is normal. The spacecraft is continuously monitored by the ground station of ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), located at Byalalu, near Bangalore. Except for a 40 minute break in the Telemetry data received from the spacecraft to the ground station, data has been continuously available for all the 100 days."
The spacecraft followed the trajectory all this while faithfully.
Mission completes 300 days
The mission completed 300 days in total and only 23 days were left to reach the red planet. It was tweeted by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) that the Mars Orbiter Mission (MoM) "and its payload were in good health". The manoeuvring of the spacecraft was to begin around 7.30 am on September 24 to reduce the spacecraft's speed from the current velocity to enable the Orbiter enter the Mars orbit.
The spacecraft had travelled 622 million km so far in its trajectory and was now 199 million km away from Earth. According to ISRO, MoM was travelling at a velocity of 22.33 km per second.
India's Mars Orbiter Mission (MoM) achieved historic success
India's Mars Orbiter Mission (MoM) achieved historic success as its spacecraft Mangalyaan entered the orbit of the red planet at about 8 a.m. on 24 September 2014. India thus became the first Asian country to reach the planet and the first in the world to enter the Martian orbit in the first attempt. As the aircraft entered the orbit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi was also present at the Indian Space and Research Organization (ISRO) centre in Bangalore to witness the historical achievement of India. The Prime Minister congratulated the scientists saying that India had gone beyond the boundaries of human imagination. NASA also congratulated ISRO for successful completion of its mission. The Mars mission was achieved in 15 months only, with a cost of Rs. 450 crore. It was the cheapest inter-planetary mission which was undertaken in the world ever.
The Countdown-When and What
|1. T-3 hours||04:17:32 AM||Changed over to Medium-Gain Antenna|
|2. T-21 minutes||06:56:32 AM||Forward Rotation started|
|3 T-5 minutes 13 seconds||07:12:19 AM||Eclipse started|
|4. T-3 minutes||07:14:32 AM||Attitude controlled with thrusters|
|5. T||07:17:32 AM||Liquid engine burn started|
|6. T+ 4.3 minutes||07:21:50 AM||Mars occult started|
|7. T+ 5 minutes||07:22:32 AM||Telemetry off|
|8. T+12.5 minutes||07:30:02 AM||Confirmation of burn started|
|9. T+19.48 minutes||07:37:01 AM||Eclipse ended|
|10. T+24.23 minutes||07:41:46 AM||Liquid engine burn ended|
|11. T+25.73 to T+ 47 min||07:42:46 to 08:04:32||Reverse maneuver started|
|12. T+27.78 minutes||07:45:10 AM||Occult ended|
|The D Day: September 24,2014|
|13. T+30.43 minutes||07:47:46 AM||Telemetry resumed and Doppler measurement provided first information about total burn performance|
|14. T+35.23 minutes||07:52:46 AM||Reverse maneuver ended|
Last Updated on : January 15, 2015