The West Bengal Society is a cosmopolitan society. The population of the state is 68 million comprising of people from different religion, sect, race and tribe. The cosmopolitan nature of the society makes it more lively and dynamic. The people of West Bengal are friendly and amicable and this is quite evident when you visit the state during the festive seasons of Durga Puja, Diwali and Christmas.
The West Bengal Society is also known for its unique delicacies. Its a gastronomic paradise for food lovers who come here to enjoy rossogolla, bhapa illish, luchi, aloo dum, macher kalia, chingri macher malai curry and many more.
Hindi is a prevalently spoken language of the state of West Bengal. The various communities that have settled in the capital city of Kolkata and the other cities interact in the Hindi language. The national language of Hindi is popular mode of communication among the non native masses of the state.
The language of Hindi is the most popularly spoken language of the country. The language is spoken in the state of West Bengal as well. The natives of the state prevalently communicate in the language of Bengali. With the development of commercial centers in the state, different communities of the country were attracted to the state and settled in the cities. The capital city of the West Bengal, Kolkata is a metropolis which is the hub of settlements of different communities. The non native residents of the state of West Bengal speak in the Hindi language.
Hindi is popularly used among the business classes who have settled in various parts of the state. Realizing the importance of the language, Hindi has also been made a part of the academic curriculum and is taught in schools and colleges. The state has several schools with the medium of studies conducted in the language of Hindi.
The language prevalently spoken by the people of the state of West Bengal is Bengali. Bengali is a Indo Aryan language derived from the alphabets of the Devanagari script. The Brahmi script also had an influence on the language. Bengali is commonly used in the state of West Bengal and in the country of Bangladesh.
Different dialects of the Bengali language is used in other states of Assam and Manipur. The language follows two styles of speaking. The sadhubhasha is the elegant form of the language and uses several words directly incorporated from the Sanskrit language. This is the traditional form of the language and is used as incantations in the ritualistic ceremonies. The style was earlier popular among the educated masses who developed the form of the language as a literary style. The use of this style is difficult and is not in use among the majority of masses. The colloquial form of the language appears in the form of the chalitbhasha. This form of the language is popular among the masses at large and developed from the speaking styles of the people of Kolkata.
English is used as a language of communication among the people of the state of West Bengal. Apart from the prevalent use of the language of Bengali, the residents of the state also use the language of English and Hindi. English is prevalently used to conduct official business in the state.
The city of Kolkata was earlier the seat of administration during the British rule of the India. The mode of communication among the British residents of Kolkata was English. The language became popular among the educated natives of the state of West Bengal. The official work of most of the organizations of the state during the period and in the present age is conducted in the English language. The language has, since then, gained popularity among the majority of masses in the state.
The language of English is a popularly spoken language among a majority of the people of the globe and has acquired the status of being the lingua franca. English has become the chief mode of communication in which the bulk of business of the world is conducted. The government of West Bengal has realized the importance of the knowledge of English and has thus incorporated the study of English as a compulsory part of the academic curriculum in the schools and colleges of all mediums. Several schools of the state have English as the medium of education.
English is a commonly used language in the state of West Bengal. The popularity of the English language has not suffered even with the presence of the other languages like Bengali and Hindi.
Pottery has been an indigenous art practiced by the people of West Bengal. The cottage industry of pottery making is long prevalent in this state of India. It is mainly the occupation of the rural people of West Bengal. Manasa Ghat is one such type of pottery of West Bengal. This profession is mainly carried further by the village women. But some times the men offer a helping hand to them. In West Bengal, the districts of Bankura, Murshidab and Midnapore are still famous for the hand made pottery.
The art of making Manasa Ghat is generally prevalent in the rural areas of West Bengal. In the districts of Midnapore, especially in the Garbeta area and Bankura district these types of pottery are made. The word Mansa is associated with the serpent goddess much respected and worshiped in the village areas of the state. The word Ghat means a pot or vase.
Mangalghat is a kind of traditional form of pottery of West Bengal. Pottery is an indigenous form of handiwork. Mostly the rural women of the state are employed in making pottery. Other clay works are also practiced in various parts of West Bengal. In Midnapore, Bankura and Murshidabad pottery is chosen as a profession.
Mangalghat is an indispensable item during the rituals performed in the households of West Bengal. This auspicious ghat or vase is used during the worship of the gods and goddesses. The Mangalghat is also used during the festivals. This type of pottery is also used in different household functions like marriage ceremonies, birth rituals and during the auspicious rituals of initiation.
Mangalghat is considered to be an essential object in the diligent Hindu homes of West Bengal. These earthen vases are generally painted and colored by the potters of the village of West Bengal. These earthen vases are small in size. There are Mangalghats available in different shapes and sizes. It is considered to be a good omen to fill the Mangalghat with holy water. The word Mangal means something associated with good spirits. And thus possessing this ghat in the Hindu households is considered to be auspicious.
Pottery is one of the primary occupations of the people of rural areas of West Bengal. It is mainly practiced in the districts of Bankura, Murshidab and Midnapore. Lakshmi Ghat is used during the worship of the goddess of wealth, also known as Lakshmi in West Bengal. This type of vase is considered very auspicious among all other pottery of West Bengal.
Lakshmi Ghat is actually an earthen vase, which is indispensable for the worship of Lakshmi. These ghats or vases generally come in auspicious pairs. Lakshmi Ghat is in fact a pair of ghats. One of them is meant for Lakshmi or the goddess of wealth and the other one for Lord Ganesh. These Lakshmi Ghats are of different sizes and shapes. And these Lakshmi Ghats are known by different names.
The Tamluk Lakshmi ghats are the ones that appear to be the most decorative among the other types of Lakshmi Ghats. They are also the most beautiful ones. On the upper portion of these vases, the comely face of the goddess is drawn. There is another type; known as the Jhargram type happens to be the simple one among all other Lakshmi Ghat. These ghats have longer necks than the other ghats. The eyes of the Lakshmi goddess is represented by two dots marked on the ghats. The Raghunathbari is another type of Lakshmi Ghat. These ghats resemble the shape of a wine cup, as they are earthen bowls attached to a stand made of earth.
West Bengal is one of the states of India with a rich and glorious cultural heritage. People from various sect, tribe and religious background live in the state and follow different rituals and customs, thus enriching the culture of west Bengal. The cultural diversity of the state is reflected through the various languages and dialects.
Various art forms like dance, music and craft are ingrained in the culture of West Bengal. In the field of fine arts Bengal's name has been written in golden words. The main contributors in this field are Abanindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jyotirindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, Gaganendranath Tagore, Ramkinkar Baize, Rabindranath Tagore.
Even in the field of literature Bengal has contributed immensely. The legendary writers of Bengali origin are Kabi Jayadeva, Rabindranath Tagore, N.C. Chowdhuri, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Isvar Chandra Gupta, Madhusudan Dutta, Sarat Chandra Chatterjee, Amitav Ghosh, Arundhati Roy, Sukumar Roy, Kazi Najrul Islam, Jivananda Das, Bibhutibhushan Banerjee, Sunil Gangopadhaya, Shirshendu Mukherjee and many more. The cultural heritage has been influenced by various folk music and dance like Baul music, Gombhira, Bhawaiya, Chhau Dance.
Fairs and festivals like Durga Puja, Diwali, Holi, Poila Baisakh and many more stimulate the Cultural life of the people. The five-day festival of Durga Puja portrays the cultural beauty of the state. People from far off places come here and soak in the spiritual celebration of the festival.
People of West Bengal belong to different caste, culture, creed, religion and sect. The traditional dress of the people of Bengal is the dhoti with a shirt. The modern urban population prefers pyjama and trousers for its convenience. But the elderly people still enjoy wearing this traditional dress. Women both in rural and urban areas wear sari, including trousers, salwar kameez etc. 40 distinguished communities of tribes are found in West Bengal, some of them are the Santals, Munas, Oraons, Lepchas, and Bhutias. These tribes constitute nearly one-tenth of the total population of the state.
The people of West Bengal are mostly Hindus and follow the religious way of Hindus. A major portion of the population is comprised of Muslim community. There are also people who follow Buddhism, Christianity and Sikhism. The cosmopolitan nature of the society is due to the wide variety of people residing in the state. One of the main occupations of the people of West Bengal is agriculture. The rural people are engaged in the cultivation of rice, wheat, pulses, and vegetables etc. that cater not only to the requirement of the state but also of the country. The people of West Bengal speak Bengali, but languages like Hindi, Punjabi, Bhojpuri are also spoken here.
People from five different racial strains inhabit West Bengal. The oldest of the race is Proto-Australian in origin. Nishadics are predominantly the tribal groups found in the areas adjoining the plateaus and Chhotanagpur and central India. The tribes are short in height with long head, dark colored skin and broad nose. The Dravidians with long head, tall structure, sharp nose are also found in Bengal. The race found in Darjeeling is the Mongoloid. The fifth race is the Alpine or Indo-Aryan race, which have a fair complexion, prominent nose and long body.
Demographics refer to certain characteristics of population that are used in government, marketing or opinion researches. Demographics of West Bengal show that the total population of the state as per 1991 census is 68 million. The male to female ratio was 1000:917.
The literacy rate of the state was 57.7% in 1991. About seventy-two percent of the total population of West Bengal resides in villages. Majority of the population of West Bengal are Bengalis that is 80,221,171. Bihari, Punjabi, Marwari, Muslims are among the minorities who are scattered all over the state. Various tribal communities and Sherpas and ethnic Tibetans can be traced in the bordering areas of Sikkim. In the Darjeeling district Nepalese origin people can be found who are commonly called Gurkha. In the western districts of the state tribal Adivasis namely Santals and Kol live.
According to Demographics of West Bengal 31.85% of people lived below the poverty line in 1999-2000. 28.6% and 5.8% of the population are Scheduled Castes and Tribes respectively.Demographics show that nearly 40 tribal communities namely Munas, Santals, Oraons, Bhutias, and Lepchas stay in the state; these tribal communities form one-tenth of the total population. West Bengal is primarily dependant on agriculture. As per demographics, the state is one of the most populated states of India. 7.8% of total Indian population lives in West Bengal but the state occupies 2.7% of India's total land area. The official language of West Bengal is Bengali. Other languages like Hindi and English are also used widely. Apart from these languages Nepali is spoken mainly in the Darjeeling district by the Gorkhas of the region.
West Bengal Ethnicity
Ethnicity can be described as the population of human beings who have either common genealogy or descent, or recognized as a distinct group by community. People who share common traits in terms of culture, language, religion, or territory. The Ethnicity of West Bengal has a strong influence on the cultural heritage of the state.
West Bengal is inhabited by people from several Ethnic backgrounds who influence each other and enrich the culture of the state. Nearly three quarters of the people of West Bengal reside in the villages. Hinduism is one of the major religion followed by the people, apart from it people of different ethnic groups stay here. About 40 tribes constitute one-tenth of the total population of West Bengal. Some of the tribes are Santals, Oraons, Munas, Lepchas, and Bhutias.
The people of various ethnic tribes follow different religion, custom and traditions. They even use different languages to communicate among themselves. Apart from the tribal languages other Indian languages like Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi are also spoken by the people of different ethnic groups. The cultural and ethnic diversity of West Bengal is one of its unique characteristics among all the states of India. The diverse ethnicity, culture, religion, and languages has unified its people and made it culturally rich landscape instead of dividing them. Different tribes have their distinct festivals, handicrafts, dance, music and culture adding to the rich heritage of the state.
West Bengal Crafts
Bengal has always led the cultural brigade of the country. Be it in Music, performing arts or Crafts - the state has exemplary expertise over a varied range of artifacts and handicrafts. For ages the artists and craftsmen of Bengal have supplied the country and the world with exciting and colorful handicrafts. Crafts in Bengal can be divided into many segments. Some of them are:-
Each and every craft works have a uniqueness of its own. Weavers in Bengal are expert in various forms of the craft. Jamdani, Kantha and other kind of handloom products owe much to the rich weaving artistry of Bengal. The state is also blessed with some extraordinary metal and stone crafts. These include metal and stone sculptures, show pieces, jewelery etc. The Dokra Metal works is a very rare form of handicraft found in Bengal and few other eastern parts of India. Craftsmen of Bengal are also expert in various kind of carvings like stone, bone, wood and shell carvings.
West Bengal, one of the eastern states of India is known for its handiworks of which pottery is one of the most popular one. In West Bengal, the small-scale industry of pottery is carried on in the districts of Bankura, Murshidabad and Midnapore. Generally the women folk of the villages are involved with this industry. Sometimes men too engage themselves in making pottery.
There are a number of varieties of the pottery of West Bengal. They are made from clay and found in different sizes and shapes. Pottery is one of the indigenous artifacts that are prevalent in West Bengal from the ancient times. The pottery is also used for various purposes.
Mangalghats are earthen vases that are generally painted and colored by the potters of the village of West Bengal. They are considered to be an essential object in the diligent Hindu homes of West Bengal. This type of pottery is also used in different household functions like marriage ceremonies, in birth rituals and during the auspicious rituals of initiation.
The Lakshmi Ghat or vases generally comes in auspicious pairs. One of the ghat of the pair is meant for Lakshmi or the goddess of wealth and the other one for Lord Ganesh. Lakshmi Ghat is used during the worship of the goddess of wealth, also known as Lakshmi in West Bengal. This type of vase is considered very auspicious among all other pottery of West Bengal.
The Manasha Ghats come in different sizes. These are earthenwares that are painted to pay homage to the serpent goddess. The drawings are mainly done on upturned earthen jars. Along with drawing the face of the goddess, the hoods of snake are also drawn on the ghats.
Tulsimancha is made from earth and sometimes it is also built of bricks. This kind of pottery has various motifs of gods and goddesses especially of Krishna and Radha.
West Bengal is well known for its pottery. It is an indigenous handiwork in the state from an ancient time. Tulsimancha is mainly found in the district of Midnapore. It is made from clay or it is generally built of bricks. This kind of structure is usually like an earthen tub. It is used for religious purposes.
Pottery of West Bengal in India is generally a profession where the women of the village are actively involved. The art of pottery is still prevalent in the districts of Murshidabad, Bankura and Midnapore. Tulsimancha is one type of decorative pottery that is very much popular in Midnapore than any other districts of West Bengal.
The Tulsimancha is a built in the manner of a pedestal raised for about three to four feet from the ground. The diameter of this structure is generally about one and half to only two feet. The borders of it are curved on all sides. The shape of Tulsimancha can vary from a rectangular, octagonal or hexagonal structure. The motifs that are made on every sides of the Tulsimanch a, are usually of Hindu gods and goddesses. Especially the images of Krishna and Radha are drawn on the Tulsimancha.
The Tulsimancha is erected on the ground and it gradually widens at the base. After filling this brick-built structure with earth, a Tulsi or Basil plant is planted. The Tulsi plant is considered to be very holy and pure to the diligent Hindus. Tulsi plant is worshiped by the women in the Hindu households for the well being of the family.
Art is an integral part of West Bengal. It is an inseparable part of every household. The various forms of art whether it is dance, music, handicrafts, and painting have blended with the social and cultural milieu of the state. Rabindranath Tagore contribution in enriching art of West Bengal is unparalleled. He has been a source of inspiration for the new aspiring musicians and dancers for over a century.
In fact Rabindranath Tagore formed a new genre of vocal music named after him as 'Rabindra Sangeet'. It comprises of songs written and composed by him. These songs were actually written by him in Bengali, which have been later translated into many other languages. Various art forms are even taught at Santiniketan, a school established by Rabindranath Tagore, which later attained the recognition of university and was called Viswabharati University. The art of ballet tradition was popularized in India by Udayashankar and his wife Amala Shankar. In the capital city of Kolkata they have trained many dancers in this art and performed with their troupe of dancers worldwide.
In the field of fine arts, artists from Bengal are famous for their exceptional works. These renowned artists have given a new way to Indian art Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Rabindranath Tagore, Jyotirindranath Tagore, Abanindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, Ramkinkar Baize. In Bangla folk music, Baul tradition is very popular. Numerous other forms of folk music like Gombhira and Bhawaiya are common. Dance as a form of art is an inseparable part of Bengali culture. The classical dances like Bharatnatyam, Manipuri, Kathak, and folk styles like Chhau Dance are learnt by artists. The folk dance of Chhau is performed with masks by male dancers.
The Tant is the one of the finest form of handloom products that West Bengal has gifted us. Keeping in sync with the rich tradition of Bengal's art and craft, Tant and the Tant Sarees of Bengal have been the favorite with fashion designers, style freaks and users. In Bengal a Tant Saree clad motherly figure is a very common and lovable sight in every home. The most possible picture of a traditional Bengali women will feature a white Tant Saree with red Anchal. This wonderful sarees are a must in Bengali Pujas and other festivities. It is can be very easily perceived, the amount of popularity and importance Tant enjoy in Bengal and adjoining areas.
The popularity of Tant owes much to its crisp muslin like finish and feather weight. The Tant Sarees are really comfortable to wear and ideal for daily use. The broad and silky thread works on the body of the saree is an excellent example of classic Bengali motifs. The colorful Tant fabrics are also used to make salwar suits, Kurtas and shirts. The Aanchals or Pallus of the Tant Sarees are ornamented with supplementary thread works, which make the garments even more attractive. The Tant garments are very popular with modern day women, especially with the working ladies who can wear them for daily use and in parties also - with the same elan.
The crafts peculiar to the state of West Bengal include Bone carvings that have been practiced for years. This eastern state of India has always been the cultural center of India and its rich tradition of hand - crafted objects is just a part of it.
West Bengal specializes in ivory carving and the craftsperson chisel out exquisite art objects from ivory. Artifacts in the brilliance of ivory white gain an aristocracy of its own and looks majestic. Ivory panels for beds, wardrobe, dressing unit, chairs, thrones, palanquins and similar objects have been coveted items by kings and queens. An ivory table or utensil made by the craftsmen of Bengal has always been craved for by these families. The Murshidabad district of West Bengal deserves special mention in this regard. Khagra and Jiagunj of this district has been the focus of attention for these elegant Bone carvings of West Bengal.
Both Hindu and Islamic motifs are used in Ivory Carving of West Bengal and are loved equally by all irrespective of religion. Hindu Gods and Goddesses are very common works of art. The figurines look marvelous in ivory for its inherent versatility. Trail of elephants and of horses done in a complete elephant tusk are widely loved in ivory as also the etched jewelry boxes. These jewelry boxes have been favorite especially with the royal ladies.
Both the districts of Midnapur, especially the areas of Narayan Chauk, Tamluk and Jyot Ghanashyam, in West Bengal are known for combs made of horn of animals. The village folks are the major users of these horn combs of West Bengal as they believe it to be good for hair and scalp. In shimmering shades of black and grey these combs are interesting in their own way.
Stone Carvings have been widely practiced in the state of West Bengal, at one point of time. Slowly the art form is nearing its extinction owing to a variety of other materials capturing the market. But still the talented artisans of West Bengal continue to produce beautiful craft items that are functional yet aesthetic in their own way. The carvers do not have a formal training. They learn the basics from the previous generations and mingle their own sense in it. In the end, beauty prevails.
Stone carvings in West Bengal are especially related with making stone utensils. Hand - operated lathes are used to carve out utensils of various shapes and sizes. The stone used for the purpose is Phyllite, a semi - soft grey colored stone that is easy to carve. Simulpur in the West Medinipur district of West Bengal deserves special mention in this respect. Stone utensils need care to handle and in this respect many other materials are preferred by the common mass.
The Bhaskars or Sutradhars of Burdwan, Patun and Dainhata are renowned for their exquisite stone carvings. Their object of carving is usually human figures and figurines on the walls of temples and houses. Free standing sculptures are also marvelous examples of their work. The use of red brick stones is common especially in the temples of West Bengal. Panels and plaques are chiseled out in stone to adorn the temples. Motifs like distinctly styled elephant, horses, Gods and Goddesses are common in the stone carvings of Bengal temples.
The Kantha works of Bengal is the exceptional embroidery art carried on by the women of Bengal. This form of folk embroidery is widely used in the state. The mothers and sisters of Bengali households have adopted Kantha to make various things, either for household or business purpose. The Kantha works act as the mirror of the society reflecting their religious and social beliefs. They also depict their dreams and desires through this wonderful form of handloom art.
Kantha is based on simple running stitch but it can be used in creating masterpieces. The simplicity of the Kantha is the reason behind its immense popularity. The origin of Kantha is related to Kontha, which in Sanskrit means the rags. It is said that Buddha's disciples used to protect themselves from the cold by stitching rags together, making it thicker and warmer. Kantha is referred in the Sri Sri Chaitanya Charitamitra as a women's self expression.
Types of Kantha based on its end products are:-
Whatever use the Kantha has, it is an integral part of the the life of the people of Bengal.
Wall Hangings West Bengal
The exquisitely decorated Wall Hangings of West Bengal represent the rich artistic skills and creative imagination of the craftsmen of the state. One of the most flourishing industry of West Bengal, the handicraft industry produces many decorative items.
West Bengal is one of the leading Jute producing states of India. The handicraft industries of the state produce many items of jute like beautifully designed carpets, attractive jute bags, colorful jute door mats, and many other decorative house hold goods. The Wall Hangings are one such products of the small-scale cottage and handicraft industry of West Bengal.
The local artists of West bengal weave the fine threads of jute to produce beautiful Wall Hangings. The natural golden color of the jute threads impart a yellowish and golden tinge to the Wall Hangings. To make them more attractive, the craftsmen design the Wall Hangings with colorful silk threads and beads.
The Wall Hangings have an internationally acclaimed status and any tourist who visits the state makes it a point to purchase them. The Wall Hangings serve various purposes. While on one hand the Wall hangings can be used as an decorative item that adds to the grace of the rooms, on the other hand they can be used as souvenirs, and gifted to near and dear ones as a token of love and appreciation.
The handicraft industry forms the backbone of the economy of West Bengal. The state earns large chunks of revenue from the small-scale handicraft and cottage industries. The Wall Hangings of the handicraft industry reflects the rich cultural tradition of the past that has triggered down to the present era to strengthen the economic condition of West Bengal.
The silk tradition of Baluchari, which involves the use of human brocade figures that adorn the borders and pallu is noted for its intricate designs. Sari is the traditional wear of women in India. Many types of Sari's are popular in India categorized on the basis of their fabric, designs, embroidery etc. Some of the common varieties are Kanchivaram, Ikkat, Banarasi, Tanth, Pochampalli, Katki silk, Chanderi, Baluchari, Garwal silk etc.
A type of silk weaving called Baluchari silk evolved where artisans could weave exquisite stories from Indian mythology in silk. This art has recently been revived, with the help of the central government and some French made Jacquard type looms. Unfortunately, there were some children working the looms when I was there and when I asked them why they were not in school, they disappeared. One of the special characteristics of Baluchari is that the designs on the saris depict stories from Indian mythology.
Various mythological characters like Ram, Sita, Radha, and Krishna are intricately portrayed on it. Baluchari is woven with two varieties of silk threads one from Bangalore and the other from West Bengal. One of the silk types is set vertically and the other is set horizontally in the special looms. To make a single sari it takes a lot of effort for the artisans. Before fixing the threads on the loom the silk threads are washed in boiling water. On the next day it is colored by dipping in hot colors. Then the threads are rolled on the spinning wheels. After toiling for nearly five to six months we get those beautiful exquisite Baluchari saris.
The different varieties of handloom products of West Bengal have always reflected the richness of art and craft of the state. Among these exquisite handloom products, the Daccai or the Daccai Jamdani holds a distinct style of its own. The Daccai weaving pattern used in the cotton sarees has gained fame over the years. The word is derived from Ducca - the capital of Bangladesh. As per its name the handloom style was originally practiced in Dacca and other parts of undivided eastern Bengal but after the partition of Bengal, it is in practice in West Bengal too. The Daccai style is generally weaved on cotton sarees. These Daccai Sarees are usually in cotton but when its treated with silk along with cotton, the glamorous Daccai Jamdani is created.
The Daccai Jamdani saree is a favorite party wear among the women of both the Bengals and also in other parts of India. The Bangladeshi Daccai Sarees are mostly in beige background but the Indian version is more liberal with colors. Jet Black Daccai Jamdani with Jari works in golden or silver is a prize possession for any women and it is one of the elegant sarees of the country. The fine texture of the Daccai Jamdani sarees almost resembles the muslin with a dose of fine ornamental works. The exotic Daccai Sarees from the shores of Bengal is India's pride today. It is one of the important export products of the country.
Langcha is a famous sweet of West Bengal. This is one of those popular fried sweets that India is famous for. Shaktigarh in the Bardhaman District of West Bengal is famous for this sweet item. Langcha is one of the most delicious Bengali Sweets.
This unique Bangali Dessert can be prepared very easily at home. The ingredients required for making Langcha are listed below
1 cup of carnation milk powder
2 tablespoon of butter
1/2 cup of flour
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
2 cups of sugar
1 cup of water
White oil for frying
How to Prepare Langcha
Mix the milk powder with butter and add some milk to prepare the dough. Do not add much milk so that the dough remains hard. From this dough make at least 20 rod shaped structures by gently rolling them on your palm. Place them on a wide plate to keep them in shape and leave them covered with a moist cloth.
Pour plenty oil in a kadhai and heat it well. After its heated well lower the flame and slip in the pieces made from the dough one by one gently from the side of the kadhai. Fry them till they turn red. After about 5 minutes of frying the pieces will rise to the surface of the kadhai. Now they shall be fried gently to ensure that all the sides have turned equally brown. Right temperature should be maintained so that the pieces of Langcha do not break.
These fried pieces must then be slipped into syrup made by melting and heating sugar and water. You can serve the Langcha hot as well as cold.
West Bengal Colleges
There are many eminent educational institutes and colleges in the state of West Bengal. Most of the eminent colleges are situated in the cultural and capital city of Kolkata which is the hub of education. The reputed colleges of West Bengal are famed all over the world for their proficiency in the field of education.
The colleges of West Bengal are affiliated to the various universities of the state. The Calcutta University is one of the oldest universities of the country established in the year 1857. With the growth of interest in higher education among the native pupils, the British government found it necessary to establish colleges in the city of Kolkata. The Presidency College was established in the year 1817. The Sanskrit College is also one of the oldest colleges of the city. There are specific colleges established for the education of women. The Bethune College in Kolkata was the first women's college founded in India. Some of the other colleges open for women only are Lady Brabourne College, Loreto College, Howrah Girl's College and Basanti Debi College. The colleges of the city offer degree courses in various disciplines including arts, science, technology and commerce. The state of West Bengal also has several well established medical institutes like the Calcutta Medical College, Calcutta National Medical College and the North Bengal Dental College. Instructions in law are meted out to students in many colleges like Hazra Law College, South Calcutta Law College, Surendranath Law College and Jogeshchandra Chaudhuri Law College. Along with these, there are institutes in engineering and film studies.
The various colleges in West Bengal are dedicated to imparting thorough knowledge on the subjects taught in the college. Many accomplished students of the colleges in the state of West Bengal have soared high gaining fame for the country all over the globe.
Following are the links to the colleges in West Bengal:
The city of Kolkata has three City Colleges. The North City College, South City College and the City College of Commerce and Business Administration are the three components of the City College of Kolkata. The three colleges provide degree courses in various disciplines but is most reputed for the commerce section.
The South City College in Kolkata is located in the following address:
South City College,
23/49, Gariahat Road,
Kolkata -700 019
The college is divided into three sections. The morning section of the college is called the Shivanath Sastri College which is open for the girls only. The college undertakes honors and general degree courses on the arts, science and the commerce stream. The subjects offered in this section are Bengali, English, Hindi, History, Political Science, Sanskrit, Philosophy, Education, Economics, Botany, Mathematics, Anthropology and Accountancy. Heramba Chandra College is the afternoon section which offers honors degree in arts and general degree in the commerce stream. Prafulla Chandra College is the evening section of the South City College which is reputed for its commerce department. The evening section is open to the boys only.
The North City College is also divided into three section and is located in the following address:
North City College,
102/l, Raja Rammohan Sarani,
Kolkata -700 009
Two sections of the college are called Rammohon College and Anandamohon College. The third section is reputed as the City College. All sections offer undergraduate degree courses in the arts, science and the commerce disciplines.
The City College of Commerce and Business Administration offers Bachelor of Commerce degree only to the students and is located in the following address:
City College of Commerce and Business Administration,
13, Surya Sen Street,
Mass communication Colleges
Mass communication is a highly sought after career option. It has recently become very popular among the students of West Bengal. With the help of this stream of education various means are taught to convey information through mass media. In the present scenario of globalization career options in mass communication is vast. It is a prestigious profession with very high remuneration. The aim of mass communication is to educate and inform the people on various issues.
The course on mass communication comprises of several papers that provide a general background of Journalism, a basic idea of film studies and shooting is given. Students are even taught about Print media: Printing and editing, reporting in news and Electronic media: television and radio. Innumerable seminars and practical classes are conducted to enrich the knowledge of students. After completing your education in mass communications many career options open up in both Print Journalism including newspapers, journals and magazines and Electronic (Audio/Visual) Journalism including Television, Radio and the Web. In electronic media you can join as a writer, editor, reporter, correspondent, researcher or also as an anchor.
Some of the Mass Communication Colleges in West Bengal are:
Institute of Mass Communication Film & Television Studies, Kolkata
Affiliated to the University of Kalyani. (West Bengal)
Registered Office: 188/57, Prince Anwar Shah Road, Kolkata - 700 045
Campus & Information Centre: 90/1, Prince Golam Hussain Shah Road, Kolkata - 700 095
Acharya Prafulla Chandra College, West Bengal, (West Bengal)
Acharya Prafulla Chandra College, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal
Bhavan's Institute Of Communications & Management,
FA/111 Saltlake City, Kolkata 770064, West Bengal
Cooch Behar College,
Kalighat Road, Cooch (West Bengal)
Gokhale Memorial Girls College,
Kolkata (West Bengal)
P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal
Rabindra Bharati University,
6/4 Dwarkanath Tagore Lane, Kolkata 700007
Satyajit Ray Film & Television Institute,
E.M. By-Pass Road, PO. Panchasayar, Kolkata 700094, West Bengal
Oxford College of Education
Patnotola Lane, Kolkata
St. Xavier's College,
Chitrabani, Kolkata 700016, West Bengal
University Of Burdwan,
P.O. Rajbati, Dist. Burdwan 713104, West Bengal
University Of Calcutta,
Senate house, 87 College Street, Kolkata 700073, West Bengal
Calcutta Boys' School
Calcutta Boys' School in West Bengal was founded in the year 1877. This school of much repute has been since then engaged in the project of educating and grooming young boys to become strong and responsible citizens of their motherland. The founding father of the Calcutta Boys' School is Rev. James Mill Thoburn.
The birth of Calcutta Boys' School is closely linked to the history of the establishment of the Thoburn Methodist Episcopal Church in the city of Kolkata. The Calcutta Boys' School of Kolkata initially started functioning in Mott Lane, later it was shifted to a room on the Corporation Street. This prestigious institution finally found a building of its own in the year 1893.
The Calcutta Boys' School is affiliated to the Council for Indian School Certificate Examinations. This is a higher secondary school. Co-curricular activities are essential parts of the weekly routines of the students of this school. Various public events are organized by the school as well. Their annual inter school fest named 'Concord' is one of the most well known school fest in the city. They also publish a school magazine titled as 'Pulse'.
The faculty members of the Calcutta Boys' School willingly shoulder the responsibility to guide the students in every aspects of life. Thus by the time they move out of the school to face the tough world outside they have developed a strong personality.
The Calcutta Boys' School, Kolkata is also proud of many notable alumni. M.J Akbar, Benjamin Walker, T.N Ninan, Prof Bhasker Biswas and Prof Swapan Chakraborty are some among them.
Calcutta Girls' High School
Calcutta Girls' High School of West Bengal is one of the most reputed institution in the city of Kolkata. The address of the school is 118, Princep Street, Kolkata- 700072. The present head of this Girls' School in Kolkata is Mrs Beulah Raju. This school was established in the year 1886, much after the boys' school was founded.
This school is affiliated to the Council for Indian School Certificate Examination, New Delhi. The Calcutta Girls' High School is a higher secondary school. As the name suggests the school is meant for only girl pupils. The higher secondary section offers three streams of study to the students. There are sections meant for Science, Commerce and Humanities.
The medium of instruction here is English. Students are offered options between Bengali and Hindi to choose as their second language. Students from various backgrounds are encouraged to mix freely in the Calcutta Girls' High School of Kolkata.
Apart from the academic disciplines the students are also encouraged to participate in many extra curricular activities. Weekly training sessions in music and games are also a part of the school's activities. Various talent contests are arranged by the school. Inter house game competitions are also an important part of the school's calendar.
There are noted personalities in all the spheres of work who have spent the early part of lives learning in the prestigious Calcutta Girls' High School.
In order to contact Calcutta Girls' High School dial 033- 2237- 1540.
Last Updated on 20/05/2013