Database Management System: Timeline, Types, Categories, Advantages and Disadvantages

Database management system software
Representative Image.

A database management system is a software package structured to determine, influence, retrieve, and manage users’ data in a database while taking up suitable security measures in this regard. It primarily works to alter the data format, field names, record and file design. In addition, it contains rules to justify and manipulate the data systematically and strategically.

Timeline of DBMS

In 1960, Charles Bachman structured the first DBMS system. Codd set up IBM’S Information Management System (IMS) in 1970. After six years, in 1976, Peter Chen termed and defined the Entity-relationship model, also called the ER model.

In 1980, the Relational Model became the well-known acknowledged database component. Goal-focused DBMS was developed in 1985. The object orientation in relational DBMS came into existence in the 1990s. In 1991, Microsoft sent MS access, a personal DBMS that replaces all other personal DBMS products. 

Then, the initial Internet database applications were out in 1995. Finally, XML applied to database processing after two years, and various vendors started to merge XML into DBMS products.

Types of the database management system

  1. Relational database model: The individual elements have such characteristics connected to their origin through a database table structure comprising the rows and columns where the traditional design query language or SQL can be undertaken to uncover different kinds of information.
  2. Hierarchy model: Each component has a child or parent relationship with one other node or component. It has been used for years and known for its earlier recognition. A parent may have many children, but children have only one parent.
  3. Network model: This model has a single component that can have several relationships or “multicast” connections.
  4. Database model: In this, the graph models are depicted for semantic concerns and an entity-relational model. These provide various routes to the traditional relational database structure. The centre could have a massive difference of format or relatively unformatted or raw data to function with, where records are not stated traditionally.

Categories of the DBMS system

  1. Application Programmer: The Application programmers mention programs in different programming languages to communicate with databases.
  2. Database Administration: Database Admin is held accountable for handling the complete DBMS system. The one who manages it is known as Database admin or DBA.
  3. End-Users: The end users are the people who communicate with the database management system. They conduct various activities on databases, namely retrieving, updating, deleting and others.

Advantages of DBMS

  1. It provides numerous techniques to store & retrieves data.
  2. It acts as an efficient manager to balance the requirements of several applications using the same data.
  3. Application programmers are never revealed to crucial information of data representation and storage.
  4. It maintains the administration procedures for data.
  5. It undertakes many powerful functions to store and retrieve data. 
  6. It offers data security and integrity constraints to get a maximum level of protection against access to banned parts of the data.

Disadvantages of DBMS

  1. Most database management systems are mostly complex systems. Hence the coaching for users to use the DBMS is needed.
  2. The cost of Hardware and Software of a DBMS is much, which raises the organisation’s budget.
  3. It can’t enable and solve complicated calculations.
  4. Sometimes, using the same program at a particular time by various users amounts to the loss of some data.