What are the Key Facts of Tamil Nadu?

Map of Tamil Nadu
Map of Tamil Nadu which lies in the southern part of India

Where is Tamil Nadu?

Tamil Nadu is in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent. The capital and the largest city of Tamil Nadu is Chennai. It spreads over an area of 130,058 square km, Tamil Nadu is the tenth-largest state in India. As per the 2011 census, it is the sixth-most populous state in the country, with a population of 72,138,958. Tamil Nadu has the second-largest state economy in India. Tamil Nadu is also home to a lot of historical places, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations, and world heritage sites.

Further, it also has the 11th highest-ranking among Indian states in the human development index (HDI). The official language here is Tamil and English. Tamil is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world, and the Tamilians are proud of their Dravidian language and culture.

What is the Geography of Tamil Nadu?

The Indian Ocean borders Tamil Nadu to the east and south. It shares its borders with Kerala to the west, Karnataka (formerly Mysore) to the northwest, and Andhra Pradesh to the north. Further, the state also encloses the north-central coast, which is the enclaves of Puducherry and Karaikal, both of which are part of Puducherry union territory. In the northeastern portion of the state is the capital city of Chennai.

The state further divides into the flat country along the eastern coast and the hilly region in the north and west. Eastern plains consist of the fertile Kaveri river delta, in the south are the arid flatlands surrounding the cities of Ramanathapuram and Madurai (Madura). Various mountains in this region are Nilgiri, Anaimalai, which is also the highest peak with an elevation point of 8,842 feet (2,695 meters), Palni Hills, which have an elevation of about 8,000 feet (2,400 meters). Some of the lower peaks of the eastern ghats are Javadi, Kalrayan, and Shevaroy hills, to name a few. Some significant rivers are Kaveri, Ponnaiyar, Palar, Vaigai, and Tambraparni, etc. Predominant soils in the region are clays, loams, sands, and red laterites.

What is the Climate of Tamil Nadu?

Virtually Tamil Nadu witnesses a tropical climate. The hottest months here are May to June where the average temperature ranges about 38°C while minimum temperature is 20°C. On the other hand, December and January are the coldest months where the temperature reaches about 21°C to 30°C daily. Monsoon occurs between October to December, which depends on the southwest and northeast monsoons, and the precipitation ranges between 630 mm and 1,900 mm (25in and 75 in) a year.

The most rain occurs in the extreme western part of the state, while the lower-lying southern and southeastern regions receive the least rainfall. Fifteen percent of the state is covered in forests. The mountains of the Western Ghats support subalpine vegetation. The state is home to several national parks at the southern tip of the Western Ghats, which is a habitat of many faunas such as elephants, gaurs, Nilgiri tahrs, wild boars, sloth bears, and various species of deer. Tigers, leopards, macaques, langurs, lorises, and Cobras, to name a few more. There are some woodland birds as well, such as aquatic birds at the Vedantangal sanctuary in the south-central part of the state.

What is the Economy of Tamil Nadu?

Agriculture is the main occupation for about half the working population of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu farmers have skilled the conservation of scarce rainwater in small and large irrigation reservoirs. Some of the other forms which are part of the irrigation system are wells, tube wells, and conventional wells. Some of the major crops here are rice, millet, cereals, peanuts, sugarcane, cotton, cashews, chilies, to name a few. Tamil Nadu also raises livestock like poultry, goats, and sheep.

The state is also a top fish producer. In the forestry sector, some of the significant products are firewood, bamboo, teak, amongst many. Major minerals that are mined here are iron ore, magnesite, lignite (brown coal), gypsum, etc. Considered to be the most industrialized state, Tamil Nadu accounts for more than one -third of the state’s gross product. Some prominent manufacturing activities include textile milling, food processing, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and electronic parts of the types of equipment.

What is the Transportation System of Tamil Nadu?

Tamil Nadu has well – developed roads that are well-connected with all the major towns in the state. Tow of dominant India’s seaports is located here like Chennai in the north and Tuticorin in the south. The international airport at Meenambakkam, near Chennai, is one of the largest airports in India.

What are the Popular Tourist Attractions in Tamil Nadu?

Some of the popular tourist attractions are Rameshwaram, Yercaud, Kodaikanal, Ooty, Chennai, Aurovile, Hogenakkal, Mahabalipuram, Kanyakumari, Kanchipuram, to name a few.

Related Maps:

Map of India Depicting Location of Tamil Nadu
Location of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu District Map
Tamil Nadu District Map

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