GIS (Geographical Information System)

About Geographic Information System

The method of capturing, storing, managing, analyzing, manipulating geographical information and presenting them in the data format is known as the Geospatial Information System or Geographic Information System. It basically combines cartography, database technology and numerical analysis. GIS is the digital creation and manipulation of the spatial areas.

Applications using GIS

A GIS might be developed for jurisdictional or any other application or purpose-oriented. This makes the Geographic Information System interoperable at times. Geographic Information Science helps emergency planners to get quick response during a crisis situation. GIS tools can even be used to locate a new trade destination or to track the spreading of infectious diseases. In turn it helps a state or a country to plan to fight an epidemic. Almost every modern city has got GIS sections in their transportation planning offices.

The different types of application for which a Geographic Information Science can be used are:
  • Scientific investigations about the surface of the Earth
  • Natural and artificial projections of geospatial character
  • Resource management
  • Location development and asset management
  • Assessing ecological impact
  • Archaeology
  • Urban planning
  • Infrastructure development
  • Criminology
  • Cartography
  • Geographic intelligence
  • Geospatial history
  • Geographic data development
  • Logistics
  • Geo marketing
  • Demographic studies
  • Statistical study
  • Military planning
  • Disease observation
  • Environmental Contamination

Technology used in GIS

Geographic Information System has been modernized by the inclusion of varied digitized information creation techniques. This method uses digital information to create data. Geo-referencing abilities and CAD (Computer Aided Design) program are used to transfer the hard copy of a survey plan or map to digital medium. Besides this, the easy accessibility of Ortho-rectified Imagery, Heads-up Digitizing has become one of the chief medium of geographical data extraction. Heads-up Digitizing straightaway traces the data on the aerial imagery. This has made age-old process of tracing the geospatial data on a digitizing tablet.

Advantages of GIS

The GIS technology has proved its importance in numerous disciplines. The constant improvement in the software and hardware parts of GIS is due to the activeness of GIS market. This improvement has made the use of GIS technology in different fields like science, business, government and real estate industries, crime mapping, public health, national defense, natural resources, sustainable development, landscape architecture, regional planning, archaeology, logistics and transportation. GIS even means diverging into LBS (Location Based Services). LBS allow devices, which are GPS enabled, to show their locality in relation to the nearest fire stations, restaurants etc.

Presently, web mapping has become quite familiar to people. This outburst of mapping websites has given open access to vast amount of geospatial data. The fame of web mapping has made the web mapping companies adopt some common features of GIS.

From long back, maps are used to explore and exploit the Earth’s resources. Being an extended part of Cartographic Science, GIS technology has contributed in enhancing the analyticity and efficiency of conventional mapping. This technology of Geographic Information System provides the most accurate data based on the combination of data collected from sources like existing maps, information send by satellites as well as climate models.

With time, GIS has added value to the present society. Besides developing environmental studies, Geographic Information System is widely used to explore the development of human beings through their daily works.

Last Updated on 19 September 2011