1. ‘In recent years India has paid adequate attention to ASEAN’. Give two points to justify the statement. 1+1
Ans.1. In recent years India has paid adequate attention to ASEAN-
(a) The ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement came into effect in 2010.
(b) On January 25th, 2018, silver jubilee of India and ASEAN
partnership was commemorated. Leaders released postal stamps to mark the event.
Explain ‘Miracle on the Han River’. 1+1
Ans. Miracle on Han River-
(a) South Korea emerged as a center of power in Asia.
(b) Between the 1960s and the 1980s, it rapidly developed into
an economic power, which is termed as ‘Miracle on the Han River’.
2. South Asia stands for diversity in every sense and yet constitutes one geo-political space. Do you agree with the statement? Give two reasons for your answer.
(a) The mighty Himalayas in the north and the vast Indian Ocean,
the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the south west and
east respectively provide a natural insularity to the region which is largely responsible for the linguistic, social and cultural distinctiveness of the subcontinent.
(b) The various countries in South Asia do not have the same
kind of political systems but democracy has become an accepted norm in this region. Thus, yes, South Asia stands for diversity in every sense and yet constitutes one geo- political space.
3. Why do you think India is now considered as an important centre of power?
Ans.3. The 21st century India is being seen as an important emerging
(a) The economic, cultural and strategic position of the country
with the population of more than 135 crores is very strong.
(b) From a strategic perspective, the military of India is selfsufficient with indigenous nuclear technology, making it another nuclear power.
(c) From an economic perspective, targeting the goal of a $5
trillion economy, a competitive huge market, and ancient inclusive culture with 200 million people of Indian diaspora spreading across the globe impart distinct meaning and salience to India as a new center of power in the 21st century. (Any two points)
4. American involvement in South Asia has rapidly increased after the Cold War. Give two examples to illustrate.
(a) The United States has had good relations with both India
and Pakistan since the end of the Cold War and increasingly works as a moderator in India- Pakistan relations.
(b) The Economic reforms and liberal economic policies in both
the countries have greatly increased the depth of American participation in the region.
(c) The large South Asian Diasporas in the US and the huge size
of the population and markets of the region also give America an added stake in the future of regional security and peace. (Any two points)
5. Evaluate the role of SAARC in facilitating the economic
cooperation in the South Asian region.
(a) The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
is a major regional initiative by the South Asian States to evolve
cooperation through multilateral means. It began in 1985 SAARC members signed the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) in 2004 which promised the formation of a free trade zone for the whole of South Asia.
(b) A new chapter of peace and cooperation might evolve in South
Asia if all the countries in the region allow free trade across the borders.
6. The first general election was postponed twice. Give two reasons for the same.
Ans.6. The first general election was a mammoth exercise-
(a) 17 crore eligible voters were to elect about 3,200 MLAs and
489 members of Lok Sabha.
(b) Only 15% of the voters were literate.
(c) In the first draft of the rolls, names of nearly 40 lakh women
were not recorded in the list. (Any two points)
7. Explicate two features of a Coalition Government.
(a) When no single party gets a majority and two or more than two
parties join together a form a government, it is called a Coalition
(b) Various small parties usually play a crucial role in forming a
(c) Position of the Head of Government usually remains weak as
he/she has to appease all the stakeholders in the government.
(Any two points)
8. Name the leader who led a peoples’ march to Parliament in 1975 and state as to what was unique about this march.
(a)Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan was the leader who led peoples’ march to Parliament.
(b)This was one of the largest political rallies ever held in the capital during those times.
9. Compare the European Union with ASEAN
Ans.9. The European Union-
(a) After the Second World War, the Organization for European
Economic Cooperation (OECC) was established by America,
under the Marshall Plan.
(b) The process of economic integration of European capitalist
countries proceeded systematically and the Council of Europe
was established in 1949.
(c) This led to the formation of the European Economic Community
in 1957. After the collapse of Soviet bloc, EuropeanUnion was
established in 1992.
(d) It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
European Union was the world’s largest economy in 2005. It
had a GDP of more than US $ 12 trillion in 2005. (Any two points)
(a) Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was
established in 1967 by five countries of this region –Indonesia,
Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand by signing the
(b) ASEAN countries have adopted the “ASEAN Way” as a form of
interaction that is informal, non-confrontationist and
(c) In 2003, ASEAN moved along the path of establishing an ASEAN
Community comprising three pillars, namely, the ASEAN Security Community, the ASEAN Economic Community and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.
(d) ASEAN had several agreements in place by which member
states promised to uphold peace, neutrality, cooperation, noninterference and respect for national differences and sovereign
rights. ASEAN economy is growing much faster than other
(e) ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for
investment, labor and services. ASEAN Vision 2020 had defined
an outward- looking role for ASEAN in the international community. ASEAN policy has been to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region. (Any two points)
10. Describe various issues regarding the National Emergency of
1975 in India.
Ans.10. The various issues regarding the National Emergency of
1975 in India are as follows:
(a) There were arrests of political workers and undue restrictions on the press.
(b) The Emergency directly affected the lives of common people
in many cases. Fundamental Rights of the people were suspended. Torture and custodial deaths occurred during the Emergency and arbitrary relocation of poor people also took place.
(c) The Constitution simply mentioned ‘internal disturbances’
as the reason for declaring Emergency. Before 1975, the Emergency was never proclaimed on this ground.
(d) Although the then government argued that in a democracy,
the opposition parties must allow the elected ruling party to
govern according to its policies. It felt that frequent recourse to
agitations; protests and collective action are not good fo democracy.
(e) Supporters of the then Prime Minister also held that in a
democracy, one cannot continuously have extra-parliamentary
politics targeting the government. This leads to instability and
distracts the administration from its routine task of ensuring
development. (Any four points)
11. In the given outline political map of India, four states have been marked as (A), (B), (C), (D). Identify these states on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book along with their respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabets as per the format that follows: 1+1+1+1
(i)The state to which Minister for Communications in the first ministry of free India belonged.
(ii) The state to which the former Prime Minister Morarji Desai was related
(iii). The state to which S. Nijalingappa belonged.
(iv)The state related to former Congress President K. Kamraj.
11 A. What is the meaning of Defection in terms of Indian politics?
Describe any two demerits of defection. 2+2
Ans.11 A. The change of political loyalty by an elected public
representative is known as defection. In other words, when an elected
public representative leaves his political party and join otherparty due
to personal and political differences or makes a new political party or
vote against parent party without formally leaving the party, then it is
known as defection.
Demerits of defection –
(a) Opportunistic and unethical politics of anti-defection has
helped removing anti-social elements into active politics.
Buying of party defected elected representatives has increased
(b) Political opportunists have created division in political parties.
Central and State governments became victims of political
uncertainty. Political parties have become irresponsible and
thereby people have started losing faith on political parties and
12. ‘Peace and prosperity of countries lay in establishing and strengthening of regional economic organizations’. Critically evaluate the statement.
(a)The members of Regional organizations resolve their
mutual differences and adopt foreign trade policy, thus give way to their economic development.
(b)Backward countries also get a chance for their development and thus, employment also increases.
(c) Standard of living of every country is improved.
(d)They get facilities of quality education, health and transport.
(e)When the public gets satisfied, then its trust in Nation’s
policy increases and thus along with its capability, also corporates in its policies, which brings peace and prosperity in a country.
(f) There are no chances of public outrage.
Give an account of the changing role of state in the light of Globalization. 1+1+1+1+1+1
(a) Globalization results in an erosion of state capacity, i.e. the
ability of government to do what they do.
(b) All over the world, the old welfare state is now giving way to a
more minimalist state that performs certain core functions, such as, the maintenance of law and order and the security of
(c) The entry and the increased role of multinational companies all
over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of government to take decisions on their own.
(d) Globalization has also reduced the power of states to decide
national and foreign policy voluntarily. They have been forced
to follow the policies and decisions of international organizations.
(e) There has been a change in the role of the state in making and
implementing strict rules of import-export. Because
globalization is based on the concept of rapid flow of people,
things and ideas. Therefore, the barriers to permits, licenses
etc. have been reduced, due to which the role of the state has
also been reduced.
(f) In some respects state capacity has received a boost as a
consequence of globalization, with enhanced technologies
available at the disposal of the state to collect information
about its citizen. With the information, the state is better able
to rule, not less able.
13. Critically evaluate the six main issues in Indian politics during the
(a) Triple Talaq: Rights of women and dignity were upheld in the
judgement and an end was put to the exploitation and insecurity
(b) Article 370: Special status of Jammu and Kashmir revoked,
reaffirming that it is an integral part of India.
(c) Farm Laws Repeal: There were a yearlong protest of farmers
largely across Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh and surmounting pressure on the government by Dharna in Delhi. This led to the intervention of Judiciary and formation of an expert committee. Finally, led to repeal .
(d) CAA-NRC Law: To fast rack citizenship for minorities in
neighboring states, however accumulated fears within Indian
communities which led to country wide protests. Judiciary had to
intervene. Finally, implementation was put on hold by the government.
(e) Ram Janmabhoomi: This was a centuries long dispute and was
reignited in the 1990s.It shaped the discourse of Indian Politics(
rise of BJP).The case went to Supreme Court after Allahabad
Court’s judgement in 2010. An expert committee was formed by
the Supreme Court. Finally judgement came in 2019 and the
matter was put to rest.
(f) Majoritarian government (single party) in 2014 and 2019, yet
followed the pre poll alliance (NDA).