The Jim Corbett National Park is well established in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. This huge Corbett park is famous for the richness of tigers which was established in 1936 under British rule. Previously it was “Hailey National Park”, after William Malcolm Hailey.
William Malcolm Hailey was the then governor of the United Provinces where it was established. Later, along with the United Provinces of Uttar Pradesh, Hailey National Park was also renamed Jim Corbett National Park. It is the first park that was established in India.
History of Jim Corbett National Park
Corbett National Park is located in northern India in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. It is the oldest National Park, the first park in India. The British government decided to build a game reserve in the same area in 1907, as per the suggestion of a group of Britishers, E. R Stevens and E. A Smythies, the plan to establish Jim Corbett, moved ahead.
The boundary of the area of the national park got started in the 1930s. After six years, In 1936, a place of 323.75 km² was given for the national park during the reign of Sir Malcolm Hailey. He was the governor of the United Provinces at that time. Within a short period, In 1936, India and Asia’s first “National Park” was ready.
There were some strict rules, which everyone was bound to follow. As per the instructions, no one was allowed to hunt animals. If one needed, cutting of timber was allowed. As soon as it became popular, people started killing its animals for domestic use.
Once again, rules got changed. No one was allowed to kill or capture mammals, reptiles, and birds inside the national park.
What is the story behind Jim Corbett National Park?
Jim Corbett was governor of the United province under British rule, who acquired a large area around the region. He renamed the area locality after his name. So be it hair salons, shops, markets and guest houses. Similarly, the place where Hailey’s national park was established was under Jim Corbett.
To keep his name alive, he renamed all the previously named salons, shops, guest houses, etc. Jim Corbett National Park has seen many ups and downs regarding the name.
In 1936, the name was after William Malcolm Hailey. Later in 1954-55, it was renamed Ramganga National Park but was again renamed Jim Corbett National Park in 1955-56.
Home to tigers
Tigers, especially Panthera tigers, are widely seen in national parks. As per the data, the largest population of tigers are living in Jim Corbett National Park. 5000-7000 Bengal tigers live in India, out of 3 thousand Bengal tigers live in Jim Corbett Park, which is three-fourths of the amount.
As per the report released by Jim Corbett National Park, there are varieties of tigers living in Jim Corbett:
These tigers are the most common and live in the largest numbers. These varieties are found in eastern Siberia and the northernmost part of China. South China tigers: South china tigers are the most endangered species with fewer digits.
Similarly, Bengal tigers, found in Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh, are among the most common tigers. Sumatran tigers, the smallest form of tiger, are on the verge of extinction.
Apart from these, there are other species too:
1. Bali tiger
2. Javan tiger
3. Caspian tiger
4. Malayan tiger
5. Indo-Chinese tiger
Challenges faced by Animals and Corbett Park:
1. Exploitation by local dwellers
People who live nearby pose a threat to the animals living in the national park. Due to the natural resources like trees and grasses, people enter the park. As per the recorded data, 75 to 80 people have entered the park illegally.
2. Increased population
Compared to 1936 and 1955, the population around the Jim Corbett National Park area has increased, creating problems in maintaining the park. In addition, people try to break the rules by hunting animals for domestic use. These issues have become a hurdle while managing the park.
3. Concerns by NCTA
National Conservation Tiger Authority has filed some issues regarding the killing of tigers by the local population for the sake of money. People illegally kill and sell them to intermediaries, who sell them to international parties.
4. Safety of local people
As per the complainants by local people, tigers invade their locality and kill them. Data released in 2014 also shows how tigers killed eight local dwellers. While park officials also complain that the wildlife gets affected by the vehicle traffic on the road.