Facts About India

India, since time immemorial, has been a subject of inquisitiveness of millions across the globe. Let's have a look at some of the important information about India.

India is a South Asian country, bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the south-east and by the Arabian Sea to the south-west. Agriculture is the mainstay of India as it employs more than 52 % of the Indian population. Rest is employed in industrial and services sectors. Such fast facts about India are very helpful in knowing the country, its land and people.

Given below are some quick facts about India:
  • India achieved independence on 15 August 1947.
  • The constitution was adopted on 26 January 1950.
  • The republic day is celebrated on 26 January.
  • India is the largest democracy in the world with a federal republican type of government.
  • India has got 29 states and 7 union territories.
  • The capital of India is New Delhi.
  • A citizen of India, who is 18-year-old or above, is entitled to vote.
  • India has got a multi-party system.

Other facts on India include:
  • The natural resources of India include coal, manganese, bauxite, limestone, natural gas, iron ore, etc.
  • The Provisional Population Total of India, as per the census of 2011, is 1,210,569,573.
  • The ethnic groups in India, as per the 2000 report, include Indo-Aryan (72%), Dravidian (25%), Mongoloid and others (3%).

India Facts



Official NameBharat (Sanskrit), Republic of India (English)
CapitalNew Delhi
Population 1,210,569,573 (2011 Census)
Area 3,287,263 square kilometers
Geographical LocationBetween latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' North and longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' East
Coastline Length 7,516 km
Major Religions Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Zoroastrianism
Population Density382 persons per square kilometer
Sex Ratio 943 females per 1,000 males
Literacy 73.00%
President Pranab Mukherjee
Vice PresidentMohammad Hamid Ansari
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
National Anthem Jana Gana Mana, written by Rabindranath Tagore
National Song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji
National Emblem An adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath
National Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
National Bird Peacock
National Flower Lotus
National Tree Banyan
National Fruit Mango
National Currency Indian Rupee
National Sport Hockey (Unofficial)
Languages The Republic of India has no national language; however, there are two official languages of the Union Government of India, namely Hindi and English.
National Flag Horizontal tricolor in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. In the center of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue color.


Some interesting facts about India:


  • Interestingly, India was one of the richest countries on earth before the British invaded in the early 17th century, and is one of the first countries in the world where diamonds were found.

  • Indian Railways is the world's eighth largest employer with over 1.4 million people employed.

  • Sanskrit is one of the earliest known languages in the world, and a member of the Indo-European family of languages, from which most modern European languages have originated.

  • India is the birthplace of four major religions of the world, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Islam is the second largest religion of both India and the world. Interestingly, there are over 300,000 active mosques in India, which is the highest in comparison to any other country including the Muslim world.

  • Brahmagupta, the Indian Mathematician, was the first to develop the concept of Zero (0), while Aryabhata developed the Place Value System. In the sixth century, Budhayana, another Indian Mathematician, was the first person to calculate the value of "pi". He did this much before any mathematicians in Europe. Also, Bhaskaracharya very correctly calculated the time (365.258756484 days) taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun, long before Western astronomers.

  • The 13th century Indian poet Saint Gyandev is credited for creating the famous game of Snakes and Ladders. The ladders denote virtues, while the snakes symbolise vices in the game. With time the game incorporated several modifications; nevertheless, the original meaning remains unchanged, i.e. good deeds take you to heaven, and evil to a cycle of rebirths. Chess, which was originally called "Chaturanga", was also invented in India. The meaning of "Chaturanga" is four members of an army.

  • Ironically, India has the largest network of post offices in the world. Yet, for a letter to take at least two weeks to cover a distance of just 30 miles is not very unusual in India.

  • The Bailey Bridge, in the Ladakh valley in Jammu & Kashmir, is located at the highest altitude in the world. The 300 m long bridge is located at a height of 5,600 m, between the rivers Suru and Dras, which flow down from the high Himalayas. The Indian Army constructed this bailey bridge in 1982.

  • The highest cricket ground in the world is located in Chail, Himachal Pradesh, on what was once a hilltop. This cricket ground was laid out in 1893 after a hilltop was levelled. This cricket pitch is located at a height of 2,444 meters above mean sea level.

  • The ancient city of Varanasi, visited by Lord Buddha in 500 BC, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world today.

  • More than 16.33 million tons of mangoes are grown in India every year.

  • There are more than a million Indians who are millionaires, yet a large section of the Indian population live on less than two dollars a day. According to the UN reports, about 33 per cent of people in India lived below the poverty line in 2010.

  • The names of some of the Indians who hold prominent places in the international arena are - Vinod Khosla, the co-founder of Sun Microsystems, Vinod Dahm, the creator of the Pentium chip, Sabeer Bhatia, the founder and creator of Hotmail and Rajiv Gupta, the former GM of Hewlett Packard.

  • Last, but not the least, just to get a better idea about the population situation of India - the number of births that take place in India every year is higher than the total population of Australia.

Things to know about the Geography of India


  • India is located on the geographical coordinates of 20 00 North and 77 00 East.

  • It is the seventh largest country in the world. The total area covered by India is 3,287,263 sq km, out of which the land covers 2,973,190 sq km.

  • It is four times the size of Pakistan, 13 times the size of UK and nine times the size of Japan.

  • The mainland of India stretches from longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' East and latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' North.

  • The highest point is Mount Kanchenjunga and the lowest point is Indian Ocean.

  • India has got a long coastline of 7,516.6 km.

  • India shares its borders with Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh.

  • India lies entirely in the northern and eastern hemispheres.

  • India witnesses Tropical Monsoon type climatic conditions.

  • In case of plant diversity, India holds the tenth position in the world and the fourth place in Asia.

  • India's variety of fauna crosses almost 91,000 species. Ganga is the longest river in India.

  • Wular Lake is the largest fresh water lake in India. The Telephone Country Code of India is +91.

  • The first Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was established in Kandla in Gujarat in the year 1965.

Things to know about the History of India


  • India is the largest and the oldest civilization in the world.

  • India holds the record of not invading any other country in the last 10,000 years of her history.

  • In the year 1526, the Mughal Empire was established by Babur in India.

  • The construction of the Taj Mahal was completed in AD 1653 by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.

  • The Indian National Congress was formed in the year 1885.

  • The Amritsar Massacre (Jallianwala Bagh Massacre) took place on 13 April 1919.

  • Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948.
  • Ayurveda, which is the earliest school of medicine in the world, was born in India thousands of years ago.

Some other striking Facts about India


  • India happens to be the second largest English speaking country in the world.

  • India is home to the second largest pool of Engineers and Scientists in the world.

  • The Bombay stock exchange is one of the biggest in the world. It includes more than 5000 companies.

  • The pharmaceutical industry in India is the third largest in the world in terms of volume of production.

  • India is the largest producer of milk in the world.

  • India is among the top five producers of tea, silk, spices, sugar, cotton, rubber, coffee and fish in the world.

  • The Indian railway system happens to be the largest employer in the world. It provides employment to more than a million people.

  • The most number of post offices in the world are found in India. There are more than 1.5 lakh post offices in the country.

  • With the GDP worth 1,996 billion US dollars, India is the 10th largest
  • economy in the world.
  • 900 million people in India use mobile phones.

  • The Agriculture sector in India accounts for 13.7 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

  • Almost 50 per cent of the total population of the country is dependent on agriculture.

  • India is the largest producer of banana in the world.

  • India happens to be the largest exporter, producer, processor and consumer of cashew nuts in the world.

  • India is responsible for 10 per cent of the total fruit production in the world.

  • Coal is a major source of energy in India; it caters to almost 67 per cent of the country's commercial requirement.

  • RBI is the only authority in India that can issue currency notes.

  • Orissa is one of the major producers of Graphite in India.

  • The country's largest news agency is Press Trust of India (PTI).

  • India is home to 187 minor ports and 12 major ports.

Scientific and Technical Development of India


  • India is among few countries in the world that manufacture supercomputers.

  • India happens to be one of the few satellite launching countries in the world.

  • The decimal and place value system were developed in India in 100 BC.

  • The famous Pythagorean Theorem was discovered in India in the 6th century by Budhayana, much before the European mathematicians.

  • India is home to the second largest pool of software developers, after the US.

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Last Updated on : August 6, 2014