Chandigarh is the first ever planned city in India. It was planned by the French architect Le Corbusier. The city tops the Union territories of Indian states and is significant as it has the highest per capita income as compared to other union territories of the country.
Being a well-planned city, it has been included in the list of world renowned cities and for its quality of life. Chandigarh is a prestigious city as it is the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana. Today, it is recognized as a city of modern India.
History of Chandigarh
The history of the place dates back to 8000 years, when it was first inhabited by the Harappans, who are known to be among the earliest civilizations.
It was a prosperous place during medieval times and a part of the Punjab Province. After independence from British rule, Punjab was divided into West and East Punjab in 1947. After partition, the East Punjab did not have a capital as Lahore was given to Pakistan. Therefore Chandigarh was planned in order to give Punjab a capital. So, at the foothills of the Shivaliks, the location was sought out for Chandigarh. The city was built under the orders of prominent officers and the Prime Minister of India. But there were many hurdles before the actual city came up. A committee was set up to choose a good site for the city. The place was chosen after considering various aspects like climatic conditions, military vulnerability, water provision, etc.
After the formation of Haryana, both the states wanted a capital. So, Chandigarh, due to the proximity and the significance that it had achieved, became the capital of both the states.
Chandigarh - Facts
Below is a table representing important facts about Chandigarh
Demography of Chandigarh
According to the 2011 census, Chandigarh was populated by 960,787 people, out of which the metro population was 1,025,682. The density of population was 7900 persons per square kilometers. The male population was 55% and the females comprised of 45%. The sex ratio is for every 1000 males there are 829 females. This states that the sex ratio is one of the lowest in the country. The literacy rate found was 86.77%, which is quite high as compared to the rest of the country. The male literacy rate was 90.81% and the female literacy rate was 81.88%. Children comprise about 10% of the population.
The city is comprised of people from various religions like Hindu, Sikh, Christians and Muslims. The Hindu population is the largest followed by Sikhism. Chandigarh is extremely progressive and has almost 90% of developed area. Most of the people live in urban areas, while only 2 percent live in villages.
The areas of concern are female literacy and female sex ratio. The government is taking measures to improve the condition of females here. In rural areas the female sex ratio is very unfortunate, which needs improvement. Chandigarh has only one district called Chandigarh.
The union territory of Chandigarh is known for its folk dances and music. The rituals and traditions carried out are mostly related to Punjabi culture and the Hindu, Sikh and Muslim culture. The local culture comprises of rich food, festivals, music and dance, religious practice and rituals. The dances here depict the liveliness of the people here. Folk dances like the bhangra, gidda, julli, sammi, teeyan are some of the famous folk dances. Major festivals celebrated here by the locals are baisakhi, gurpurab, lohri, tika, raksha bandhan and many more. Festivals comprise of a variety of food, sweet preparations and puja.
Chandigarh culture today is quite modern and you can see people from various cultures as well. People from all over the country have settled in Chandigarh, so you can see a vast mixture of cultures and traditions.
People here speak Hindi or Punjabi or a combination of both. The city also has a cultural complex that showcases the art and culture of Chandigarh. The cuisine of Chandigarh is wide-ranging and you will definitely love the cuisine here. The traditional food here is typical Punjabi and very spicy too. Vegetarian and non vegetarian food are prepared here with great variety and taste.
The costumes of Chandigarh are similar to that of people in other parts of the states. However during festivals or important events, men love to wear sherwani and women wear lehenga choli or salwar kameez or sari.
Economy of Chandigarh
As Chandigarh is recognized as the base of three different governments, it has become the major government employer in the region. Most of the population here works in government offices or with government jobs. The capital also has around 15 medium to large industries along with public sector enterprises. There are around 2500 units of small scale industries. The capital is also supposed to be an upcoming IT hub. Chandigarh ranks 9th as an emerging outsourcing and IT services hub.
As far as industries are concerned paper manufacturing, basic metals, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances alloys and machinery are the important industries in Chandigarh. Other industries are relating to food products
The state has one of the most developed infrastructures in the country. It shares great air, road and rail connectivity with Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
Government and politics of Chandigarh
Chandigarh serves as a capital of Haryana and Punjab, which is why it is administered separately. It is recognized as a Union Territory of India. The head of Chandigarh administration is the Governor also called as the administrator, who is appointed by the President of India. He is vested with most of the executive powers. The administration is under the Home ministry of India. Shivraj Patil is the current administrator or Governor of Chandigarh.
Chandigarh has its own Vidhan Sabha parliamentary constituency and covers the entire Chandigarh. It is also the only one in India that has its own Vidhan Sabha. Chandigarh is the legislative assembly of Haryana and Punjab states as well.
Various bodies have been created to look after the different sectors of administration like education, social welfare, vigilance, environment, housing, animal husbandry, excise and taxation, health, food and supplier and urban planning.
?Chandigarh is under the Ministry of Home affairs. In the position on the Advisory, a senior officer belonging to the IAS service is the second in command. The person belongs to the AGMU cadre of IAS. The Deputy Commissioner belongs to the IAS and in control of the general administration of the Chandigarh UT. The Senior Superintendent of Police or the IPS controls the law and order of Chandigarh UT.
There are various political parties in Chandigarh that look after the governance and politics of the city. The Indian National Congress, Bhartiya Janta Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and the Bahujan Samaj Party BSPA (A) are some of the political parties. Chandigarh is a Vidhan Sabha constituency of the parliament and includes the whole of the Chandigarh Union Territory.
Located at the foothills of the great Himalayas and the grand Shivalik range, the city has earned a good name for a tourist destination for its great planning, the clean environment, the grand structures and the magnificent gardens. It is an incredible city, with 47 sectors that are intertwined by a great network of roads. Therefore roaming around is not a problem at all. Today, it takes a prominent place as a tourist destination of India. Nature lovers will love the gardens in the city and the reservoir in Chandigarh.
Some of the attractions are very popular among tourists. The valley can be described as a garland of gardens. Many people love to take leisurely walks here. Rock Garden is located in Sector 1 and comprises of exquisite artwork made out of waste. The garden has various sculptures made with discarded materials of various types. Sukhna Lake is a spectacular man-made lake. It also serves as a great picnic spot and is located in a very picturesque spot. The climate here is serene, which makes it an ideal place to hear the humming of birds.
Language of Chandigarh
The location of Chandigarh is in north India and the language which is popular is Punjabi. People for hundreds of years have been speaking this language here. Hindi is also widely spoken here. But, due to its developed infrastructure, the city has attracted vast numbers of the population and with it came different languages from other states as well. Being a multicultural city, it has given rise to multilingual atmosphere. As it is also the capital of Haryana, Haryanvi is also spoken by most of the people here. Most ofpeople converse in Hindi and English as well. People from different states have to converse in these two languages if they do not speak Punjabi. English is the language used in government offices. The official language of the city is Punjabi. The youth of Chandigarh speak a mix of Hindi and English.
Education in Chandigarh
Education in Chandigarh is of very high quality and in the form of informative and interesting methods that provide a wholesome approach to education. The universities of Chandigarh have provided quality education that has churned out students who are highly skilled and competent. The government has taken initiative to provide the best education to every child in the city within one kilometer from the child's residence. You can find a large number of government schools as well as private schools. Many privately managed schools have earned a grant-in-aid for those who are recognized as secular schools.
The education here comprises of tertiary level and is looked after by the education department of Chandigarh. There are four government colleges in Chandigarh that are great in terms of infrastructure, campus, auditoria and sports. The colleges are affiliated to Punjab University. One can get education in various streams like comerce, arts and science. Computer science and business administration courses are also provided. The colleges here offer post graduation courses, Instrumental music, Public administration, English, Economics and foster global competitiveness. Girls as well as boys study in various institutions of Chandigarh.
Vocational education is also popular with colleges in Chandigarh. The courses are parallel to mainstream education. They come in sections like Health, Commerce, Para-medicine and Engineering.
Geography of Chandigarh
Chandigarh is located at the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas. The area covered is around 44.5 sq km and is surrounded by Punjab and Haryana. It is around 321 meters above sea level. It can be located at 30 degree 14 N latitude and 76 degree 14 E longitudes. It has a fertile soil and produces crops in abundance. The land here comprises of fertile alluvial soils and on the surface you find boulders, gravel, clays, silt, sand, pebbles and bricks.
Regarding the flora and fauna of the place, you can see a large number of water holes, and good plantations along with natural regeneration of various species and ideal habitat for wildlife. A variety of trees, herbs, shrubs, grasses and climbers can be found in Sukhna sanctuary as well as mammals, birds and reptiles. Besides you get to see migratory birds from Siberia and Japan.
Today a vast expansion of 3245 hectares has been converted under forest cover and is now a haven for wildlife. The place also has two national reserve forests and habitat for endangered species.
Hotels in Chandigarh
Since North India is among the most frequented tourists destinations in India it is but obvious that Chandigarh will be crowded all through the year. Most of the hotels in Chandigarh are strategically located and share proximity to the various important tourist's spots in and around the state.
Last Updated on 18/09/2013