India Demographics


What do we mean by demography?



Demography can be defined as the general science of studying human population. It is the statistics of the population that is subjected to spatio-temporal change in accordance with aging, birth, death, migration etc. The demography of any place helps to gather information about the population, religion, language and ethnicity of that place.

What data do we get from India demographics?



India demographics occupy 2nd rank among the world's most populated countries. With its current population of more than 1.21 billion people (As per Census of India 2011), the country is estimated to surpass China and be the leading populous country in the world. The total population of the nation is growing at the rate of 1.41 %. Similar to any other demography, Indian demography even projects varied information regarding the country. Let us have a quick look at the information, which can be gathered from the demography of our nation as provided in the report published by the Census Operations of India post Census 2011:

Population:
  • Total: 1, 210, 193, 422
  • Females: 5, 86, 469, 174
  • Males: 6, 23, 724, 248
Density of Population: 382 per sq. km.
Decadal growth (2001 - 2011): 1, 81, 455, 986
Decadal growth rate (2001 - 2011): 17.64 %
Birth rate: 20.97 births/ 1, 000 population
Growth rate: 1.344 %
Death rate: 7.48 deaths/ 1, 000 populations
Fertility rate: 2.62 children born/ woman

Infant mortality rate:
  • Total: 47.57 deaths/ 1, 000 live births
  • Female: 49.14 deaths/ 1, 000 live births
  • Male: 46.18 deaths/ 1, 000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
  • Total: 66.8 years
  • Female: 67.95 years
  • Male: 65.77 years
Age structure:
  • 65 years and over: 5.5 % (Male: 30, 831, 190 and Female: 33, 998, 613)
  • 15 years to 64 years: 64.9 % (Male: 3, 98, 757, 331 and Female: 3, 72, 719, 379)
  • 0 years to 14 years: 29.7 % (Male: 1, 87, 450, 635 and Female: 1, 65, 415, 758)
Median age:
  • Total: 26.2 years
  • Female: 26.9 years
  • Male: 25.6 years
Sex ratio:
  • Total: 1 female/ 1.08 males
  • 65 years and over: 1 female/ 0.91 male
  • 15-64 years: 1 female/ 1.07 males
  • Below 15 years: 1 female/ 1.13 males
  • At birth: 1 female/ 1.12 males
Literacy:
  • Total: 77, 84, 54, 120
  • Females: 33, 42, 50, 358
  • Males: 44, 42, 03, 762
Literacy rate:
  • Total: 74.04 %
  • Females: 65.46 %
  • Males: 82.14 %
Net migration rate: -0.05 migrant/ 1, 000 population

Indian States and Union Territories Population, Area and Density



The state-wise details of India's population and area can be gathered from the following table:

Name of state Area in sq. km. Population (As per Census 2011) Density per sq. km.
Andhra Pradesh 2, 75, 045 84, 665, 533 308
Arunachal Pradesh 83, 743 1, 382, 611 17
Assam 78, 438 31, 169, 272 397
Bihar 94, 163 1, 03, 804, 637 1, 102
Chhattisgarh 1, 35, 191 25, 540, 196 189
Goa 3, 702 1, 457, 723 394
Gujarat 1, 96, 024 60, 383, 628 308
Haryana 44, 212 25, 353, 081 573
Himachal Pradesh 55, 673 6, 856, 509 123
Jammu and Kashmir 2, 22, 236 12, 548, 926 56
Jharkhand 79, 714 32, 966, 238 414
Karnataka 1, 91, 791 61, 130, 704 319
Kerala 38, 863 33, 387, 677 859
Madhya Pradesh 3, 08, 245 72, 597, 565 236
Maharashtra 3, 07, 713 1, 12, 372, 972 365
Manipur 22, 327 2, 721, 756 122
Meghalaya 22, 429 2, 964, 007 132
Mizoram 21, 081 1, 091, 014 52
Nagaland 16, 579 1,980,602 119
Orissa 1, 55, 707 41, 947, 358 269
Punjab 50, 362 27, 704, 236 550
Rajasthan 3, 42, 239 68, 621, 012 201
Sikkim 7, 096 6, 07, 688 86
Tamil Nadu 1, 30, 058 72, 138, 958 555
Tripura 10, 486 3, 671, 032 350
Uttar Pradesh 2, 40, 928 1, 99, 581, 520 828
Uttarakhand 53, 483 10, 116, 752 189
West Bengal 88, 752 91, 347, 736 1, 030


The below mentioned table provides us information regarding the Union Territory wise details of India's area and population:

Name of Union Territory Area in sq. km. Population (As per Census 2011) Density per sq. km.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 8, 249 3, 79, 944 119
Chandigarh 114 1, 054, 686 23, 970
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 491 3, 42, 853 1, 808
Daman and Diu 112 2, 42, 911 5, 623
Delhi 11, 297 16, 753, 235 29, 258
Lakshadweep 32 64, 429 5, 196
Puducherry 479 1, 244, 464 6, 730


Religious demography of India



The country of India has got the largest portion of Hindus, Zoroastrians, Jains, Sikhs and Bahá'ís residing in the world. The nation even houses world's third-biggest Muslim population. Though the prevalence of religious communities vary from one state or Union Territory to another, still some places are known for being home to any particular religious group. These groups are as follows:

  • States or Union Territories with majority of Muslim population: Lakshadweep and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • States or Union Territories with majority of Christian population: Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
  • States or Union Territories with majority of Sikh population: Punjab.
The below-mentioned table can help us in gathering an overall idea about the religious demography of India as per Census 2001:

Composition Hindus Muslims Christians Sikhs Buddhist Jains Others (Jews, Baha'is and Parsis)
% total of population 2001 80.50 % 13.40 % 2.30 % 1.90 % 0.80 % 0.40 % 0.60 %
10 Yr Growth % (Est. ' 91 – ' 01) 20.30 % 29.50 % 22.60 % 18.20 % 24.50 % 26.00 % 103.10 %
Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950 964 786 942 870 976
Urban sex ratio 922 907 1, 026 886 944 941 966
Rural sex ratio 944 953 1, 001 895 958 937 995
Total sex ratio (Avg. 944) 935 940 1, 009 895 955 940 1, 000
Literacy rate (71.7 % for Age 7 & above) 75.5 % 60 % 90.3 % 70.4 % 73 % 95 % 50 %
Work Participation Rate 40.4 % 31.3 % 39.7 % 37.7 % 40.6 % 32.9 % 48.4 %


Linguistic Demography of India



Hindi, being the national language of the country, most the Indians speaks Hindi language. However, the dialects and languages spoken in the nation again vary from place to place and community to community. India has got a total of 1, 652 dialects and languages. Census of India, 2001 shows the following details about the linguistic demography of the Indian Republic:

Language Speakers Percentage
Assamese 13, 168, 484 1.28 %
Bengali 83, 369, 769 8.11 %
Bhili/Bhilodi 9, 582, 957 0.93 %
Bodo 1, 350, 478 0.13 %
Dogri 2, 282, 589 0.22 %
Gondi 2, 713, 790 0.26 %
Gujarati 46, 091, 617 4.48 %
Hindi dialects 4, 22, 048, 642 41.03 %
Ho 1, 042, 724 0.10 %
Kannada 37, 924, 011 3.69 %
Kashmiri 5, 527, 698 0.54 %
Khandeshi 2, 075, 258 0.20 %
Khasi 1, 128, 575 0.11 %
Konkani 2, 489, 015 0.24 %
Kurukh 1, 751, 489 0.17 %
Maithili 12, 179, 122 1.18 %
Malayalam 33, 066, 392 3.21 %
Marathi 71, 936, 894 6.99 %
Manipuri (Meitei) 1, 466, 705 0.14 %
Mundari 1, 061, 352 0.11 %
Nepali 2, 871, 749 0.28 %
Odia 33, 017, 446 3.21 %
Punjabi 29, 102, 477 2.83 %
Santali 6, 469, 600 0.63 %
Sindhi 2, 535, 485 0.25 %
Tamil 60, 793, 814 5.91 %
Telugu 74, 002, 856 7.19 %
Tulu 1, 722, 768 0.17 %
Urdu 51, 536, 111 5.01 %


Last Updated on 09 September 2011