Oil and gas maps of India show the different locations and states of India where mineral oil and natural gas are found. Oil and natural gas are the two principal natural resources of the country.
Scenario of oil and gas industry in India
The petroleum reserves of India, situated in Gujarat, Bombay High (next to the seashore of Maharashtra), eastern Assam, and Rajasthan satisfy about 1/4th of the requirements of the nation.
Till January 2007, the established oil reserves of the country hold the second biggest volume in the Asia-Pacific territory and India ranks after China in this regard. This is as per statistics provided by EIA (Energy Information Administration), which is a statistical organization of the United States Department of Energy.
The majority of petroleum reserves of the country lie in the western seashores of the country (including Mumbai High) and also in the northeastern region of India. However, a significant number of unexploited reserves are situated in Rajasthan and close to the coasts of the Bay of Bengal.
India relies significantly on oil imports for fulfilling the usage requirements of the country. The blend of increasing oil usage and somewhat firm production volumes is the main reason behind this.
The approximated amount of oil used in the country during 2006 was 418,000 m3/d or 2.63 Mbbl/d.
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projected that India posted an increase in oil demand amounting to 16,000 m3/d (100,000 bbl/d) in 2006.
The petroleum industry in India is controlled by government organizations. Over the past one or two decades, the Government of India took a number of initiatives to lift the regulations from the hydrocarbons sector and encourage higher international participation.
The biggest oil company in the country is the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Limited, which is an entirely state-held organization. In terms of market capitalization, ONGC also ranks as the biggest organization in India.
In the upstream division of the petroleum industry in India, ONGC is the major player, representing about 3/4th of the oil production of India in 2006, as substantiated by the statistics provided by the Government of India.
Since the Government of India functions as a net importer of petroleum, it has launched a number of guiding principles concentrating on enhancing internal oil output and oil excavation operations. In 2000, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas laid down the New Exploration License Policy (NELP) as a component of this venture.
This new policy allows overseas corporations to own 100% stake holdings in oil and natural gas ventures. Nonetheless, thus far, just a limited number of regions rich in petroleum deposits are regulated by overseas companies.
The downstream segment of the petroleum industry of India is regulated by state-held corporations as well. In spite of this, private players have expanded their market shares over the last few years.
Major petroleum refineries in India
Given below are the names of the petroleum refineries in India with their installed capacities (in MMTPA - Million metric tons per year, or equal to 20,000 barrels per day):
Refineries operated by the Indian Oil Corporation
- Guwahati Refinery (Assam) - 1.0
- Digboi Refinery (Upper Assam) - 0.65
- Gujarat Refinery - 8.0
- Barauni Refinery - 6.0
- Mathura Refinery - 8.0
- Haldia Refinery - 7.5
- Bongaigaon Refinery - 2.35
- Panipat Refinery - 12.0
- HPCL Visakhapatnam - 7.50
- Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) Mumbai - 5.50
- Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL) Manali - 9.50
- Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) Mumbai - 6.90
- Kochi Refineries Ltd. (KRL) Kochi - 7.50
- CPCL Nagapattnam - 1.00
- Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL) Mangalore - 9.69
- Numaligarh Refinery Ltd. (NRL) Numaligarh - 3.00
- Reliance Petroleum Ltd. (RPL). Jamnagar (Private Sector) - 33.00
- Tatipaka Refinery (ONGC) Andhra Pradesh - 0.078
Natural Gas in India
Till January 2007, the volume of proven natural gas reserves in India was 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and this data has been provided by the Oil and Gas Journal. The lion's share of the natural gas output of the country is generated by the western parts of the country near the seashores, especially the Mumbai High area.
The inshore fields in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, and Gujarat are significant generators of natural gas as well. According to EIA (Energy Information Administration) statistics, the amount of natural gas generated by the country in 2004 was 996 billion cubic feet.
The country is an importer of a nominal amount of natural gas. It used approximately 1,089x109 cubic feet (3.08x1010 m3) of natural gas. This was the same year when India demonstrated net imports of natural gas. The amount of liquefied natural gas imported from Qatar in 2004 was 93x109 cubic feet or 2.6x109 m3. Liquefied natural gas is also termed as LNG.
Similar to the petroleum exploration industry, the greater part of natural gas output in India is represented by the state-held corporations. OIL (Oil India Ltd.) and ONGC are the major corporations in India in terms of amount of output. At the same time, some international players also participate in upstream operations in collaborations/partnerships and output division agreements.
Reliance Industries, a privately-held big corporate house in the country, is playing a significant role in the natural gas industry of the country due to a huge natural gas exploration in the river valleys of Krishna and Godavari in 2002.
GAIL or the Gas Authority of India Ltd. has a considerable command on natural gas supply and distribution operations. The Union Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas introduced a new plan which permits private India-based corporations, overseas sponsors, and other country-based oil corporations to own to the extent of 100% holdings in pipeline ventures. This was introduced in the month of December 2006.
Though the control of GAIL on natural gas supply and distribution is not backed by law, the company will keep on being the major participant in the industry due to its current natural gas network.
Last Updated on 28 September 2011