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Geography of Uttarakhand

The geography of Uttarakhand reveals that it is surrounded by Himachal Pradesh in the north-west and Uttar Pradesh in the south and shares its international borders with Nepal and China. The state is quite rich in natural resources.

The well known Himalayan peaks of Nanda Devi, Kedarnath, Trishul, Bandarpunch and Mt Kamet and the important glaciers like Gangotri, Pindari, Milam and Khatling are situated in Uttarakhand. The Ganga, the Yamuna, Ramganga and Sharda are rivers contributing to the geography of this region. The state of Uttarakhand covers twelve prominent ecological zones of the country. These are:
  • Nanda Devi National Park
  • Valley of Flowers
  • Gangotri
  • Govind National Park
  • Rajaji National Park
  • Kedarnath
  • Mussoorie
  • Binsar
  • Sanadi
  • Govind sanctuary
  • Ascod sanctuary
All these divisions support many rare plants and animal communities.

Uttarakhand is one of the most picturesque areas of north India (and beyond). It is a land of considerable natural beauty. The northern part of the state of Uttarakhand is shrouded by Himalayan ranges and glaciers, whereas the lower parts of the state are thickly forested. The Himalayan ecosystem plays host to a large number of animals, plants and rare herbs.

The geography of Uttarakhand makes it an ideal place for hiking, walking or trekking. You will find several frequented trails, several among them even well documented. Besides, you can also take advantage of the long and solitary walks through fields, hills and mountains.

Two of India's biggest rivers, the Ganga (Ganges) and the Yamuna originate in the glaciers of Uttarakhand and are supplied with water on a perennial basis by numerous lakes, glaciers and many streams in the region. The geography of Uttarakhand is such that it has been usually divided into two parts, the western half known as Garhwal and the eastern region as Kumaon. The source of the word Uttarakhand is the Sanskrit term for North Country.


Topography of Uttarakhand implies the terrain and the landforms present within its territory. Nestled amid the Himalayas, the topography of Uttarakhand offers a wide range of landforms form hills and peak to cliffs and ridges.

The topography of Uttarakhand boasts of many rich forests, glaciers, mountains peaks, and beautiful network of the mighty rivers. In fact, the hills and mountains present in the territory of Kumaoni-Garhwal is said to be the 'Abode of Gods and Goddesses'.


Uttarakhand, owing to its diverse topography and unexploited territories boasts of a vast variety of exotic fauna. Ranging from towering mountains perennially snow bound to the river valleys, undulating hills to the densely forested Terai, you will find a rich variety of fauna. This is why most visitors to the state find their travel incomplete without a trip to the wild life sanctuaries of Uttarakhand.


Uttarakhand houses a rich wealth of flora that mostly comprises of a variety of flowers. The flora of Uttarakhand contains the alpine meadows where flowers of different hues bloom every spring.

The flora of Uttarakhand is chiefly concentrated in the Garhwal region, which is also known as the 'Valley of Flowers'. Analogous to its name, the valley in Garhwal houses a multitude of flowers of different colors.

Moreover, as the statistics says, the flora of Uttarakhand comprises 343 species representing 256 genera belonging to 107 families.

Major Hills

Uttarakhand is a state of immense natural beauty, boasting some major hills that contribute much to rendering tourism, the source of revenue in the state. The northern areas comprise part of the Greater Himalayan ranges, shrouded by lofty Himalayan peaks and glaciers, whereas the lower foothills were thickly forested till deforested by British log traders and forest contractors in the post independence period. The major hills are regularly visited by tourists from all over the country.


Biodiversity of Uttarakhand is rich because of the close relationship between the religious, socio-cultural beliefs and conventions. The biodiversity of Uttarakhand includes the sacred groves that exhibits a rich wealth of flora and fauna. Biodiversity of Uttarakhand comprises of rare and threatened species of plants and animals. In the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, we come across alpine meadows where different kinds of flower bloom in the spring time. This valley of flowers contains a multitude of flowers which is a wonderful sight to look at!

Major Rivers

Uttarakhand, located in Northern India, contains some of the most important and major rivers of India. The Ganga and the Yamuna have their sources in this state and comprise the most famous and major rivers of the country as a whole. They are supplied with water on a perennial basis by numerous lakes, glaciers and countless streams in the area. More Details >>

Last Updated on 4 March 2013