Mountains of India play a key role in forming the ecosystem of the country. The magical Mountains of India, denoted as the abodes of the gods are famous with tourists due to the fresh air, religious significance, and thrilling adventure sports opportunities. All these mountains offer a magnificently rejuvenating respite from the exhausting heat that covers majority of India during the months of April and May.
Mountains of India: An Overview
India is home to some of the tallest and gallant mountain ranges in the world. These ranges come with some of the most attractive sceneries and ecosystems in the world. The diversified altitudes and ranges feature a wide range of flora and fauna. You will get to see tropical and subtropical forests at the foothills of the Himalayan Mountain Ranges. The views of the snowy mountains in Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir will simply leave you spellbound.
Mountain ranges such as Western Ghats, Himalaya, Aravalli, Eastern Ghats, Nilgiri, Shivalik, Vindhya, and Satpura mountain ranges make a significant contribution towards maintaining the beauty of geographical features, landscape, and balanced environment. Covered with dense and big forests, accommodating a wide variety of plants and animals, the mountains of India are prominent tourist attractions in the country.
Mountains of India can be broadly categorized into the following:
- Ancient Indian mountains
- Mountains of Jammu and Kashmir
- Mountains of Himachal Pradesh
- Mountains of Kerala
- Mountains of Karnataka
- Mountains of Sikkim
- Mountains of Maharashtra
- Mountains of Tamil Nadu
- Mountains of Uttarakhand
- Mountains of West Bengal
The Great Himalayas
Stretching for more than 2,500 km from the East to West, and 250 km to 400 km from South to North, the Himalayan Mountain Ranges are one of the natural wonders of the world. With a number of tall peaks and rivers, the mountain ranges are a favorite site for ecotourism enthusiasts. The Himalayas are home to some of the most famous peaks in India like the Kanchenjungha and Nanda Devi. You can participate in exciting adventure sports and activities such as rock climbing, trekking, nature walk, whitewater rafting, camping, and mountain biking. Mount Everest is the tallest peak in the Himalayan Mountain Range. This range encompasses the whole northern portion of India, located in five important states of the country. In Sanskrit Language, the Himalayas stand for “Abode of Snow”.
This mountain range is popular among tourists because of the hospitality of the local people, the pilgrimage sites, the trekking spots, and the beautiful valleys that meet the towering mountain ranges. You will get to see different species of butterflies, birds, Asian elephants, tigers, gaurs and other varieties of wild animals. Trees like Chir (Pine), Deodar, Oak, Rhododendron, Fir, Juniper and Birch are frequently observed.
The Himalayan Mountain Range is an ideal location for mountaineering expeditions. The glaciers are one of the favorite attractions for the mountaineers. When you go for a hiking expedition, you will face some of the most difficult challenges that you have ever come through. The glaciers in Kashmir and Ladakh will test your endurance. The Siachen Glacier is regarded as the biggest glacier away from the arctic zones.
Some of the important hill areas in the Himalayas are Srinagar, Gulmarg and Sonmarg, Shimla, Ladakh, Manali, Kullu, Dalhousie, Dharamsala, Nainital, Sarahan, Rishikesh, Mussoorie, Darjeeling, Gangtok, and Kailash Mansarovar.
- The middle ranges such as the Dhauladhar and the Pir Panjal
- The Outer Ranges or the Shiwaliks on the southern ends
- The Greater Himalayas with the tallest and oldest crests (most of them are in Nepal).
Aravalli Mountain Ranges
Stretching for approximately 300 miles over Rajasthan, the Aravalli Mountain Ranges are one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world. Extending over a huge region, these ranges save the cities of Rajasthan from the severe deserts.
Mountains in Himachal Pradesh
Mountains in Himachal Pradesh have similarities with the mountains of Austria. The state is the territory of snow, picturesque waterfalls, valley of fruits, and highland pastures. The capital of Himachal Pradesh is Shimla. If you spend some time in the state, you will forget that you are still in India. The diverse blend of culture and people would astonish you. Popular tourist spots include McLeod Ganj and Dharamsala. Manali is famous among the adventure sports lovers and Shimla is a favorite place for the romantic couples.
Mountains in Himachal Pradesh are famous for their hill stations. These hill stations are especially cool even during the summer months. Dalhousie, Shimla, Manali, Kullu, and Kufri are some of the hill stations in the state. All these hill stations provide spectacular views and unlimited adventure sports options. Dharamshala, which is the official residence of the Dalai Lama, is one more major tourist attraction.
India’s powerful rivers like the Ganga, Sutlej, Yamuna, Chenab, Ravi, and Brahmaputra are fed by the melting snows of the Himalayan Mountain Range.
Himachal Pradesh Physical Map
Mountains in Uttarakhand
Mountains in Uttarakhand have gained popularity for a number of reasons. The state is also known as “Devbhumi” and draws travelers and religious devotees from all over India. The entire Uttaranchal consists of eight mountainous districts.
The state is a heaven for adventure sports lovers. These sports include trekking, mountaineering, skating, skiing, aerial sports (paragliding and hang gliding) and different types of water sports. All these activities make Uttaranchal one of the most popular adventure sports spots in India. Rishikesh and Haridwar are the most sacred cities in India and famous yoga and meditation centers. The Valley of Flowers National Park with its abundance of flowers is a popular trekking spot.
Uttarakhand Physical Map
Mountains in Sikkim
Sikkim is a very small state in India. The state is bordered by Bhutan to the east, Nepal to the west, the state of West Bengal to the South and by the Autonomous Region of Tibet in China to the north. Sikkim is home to the third highest peak in the world, the Kanchenjungha (8,586 m). It is also the tallest peak in India.
Sikkim Physical Map
Mountains of the Northeastern States
The Northeastern States are also known as the Seven Sisters. These states are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. Though the seven sisters have their own distinctive features, the presence of Himalayas is mostly felt in Arunachal Pradesh. There are unlimited opportunities for boating, angling, rafting, trekking, and mountain climbing. In addition, there are a slew of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, where you can see endangered species of birds and animals. These are favorite spots for the anthropologists, tourists, and wildlife lovers.
Arunachal Pradesh Physical Map
The Cardamom Hills are a portion of the Western Ghats Mountain Range. Beautiful landscape, aromatic tea gardens, and magnificent basins characterize the Cardamom Hills. The World Heritage Committee of the UNESCO is thinking about it to declare as a World Heritage Site.
Nilgiri Hills are also known as the Blue Mountains. They are located in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in South India. Situated on the Western Ghats, the Nilgiris are one of the oldest mountain ranges in India. The high cliffs, spotless basins, and cascading waterfalls add an appeal to its magnificence. Kodaikanal and Ooty in Tamil Nadu are important hill stations in this region.
Mountains of West Bengal
The mountains of West Bengal are also famous for their scenic beauties. Darjeeling is a beautiful hilly region, famous for its tea gardens. Adventure sports lovers find these mountains ideal for their pursuit.
West Bengal Physical Map
List of peaks and mountains of India
Given below is a list of mountains and peaks of India:
- Agastya Mala
- Bambi Dhura
- Blue Mountain
- Burphu Dhura
- Chiring We
- Chong Khumdan
- Gauri Parbat
- Baba Kailash or Jonglingkong
- Hathi Parbat
- Kanchanjenga ; tallest peak in India and 3rd tallest in the world
- Katphori Tiba
- Mamostong Kangri
- Mount Abu
- Mol Len
- Nanda Devi — second tallest peak in India
- Nag Tibba
- Nanda Gond
- Nanda Devi East
- Nanda Pal
- Nanda Kot
- Nun Kun
- Plateau Peak
- Rishi Pahar
- Rimo I
- Saser Kangri
- Saltoro Kangri
- Suj Tilla East
- Suli Top
- Suj Tilla West
- Aravalli Range
- Agasthyamalai Hills
- Camore Hills
- Anamalai Hills
- Eastern Ghats
- Cardamom Hills
- Great Indian
- Garo Hills
- Jaintia Hills
- Khasi Hills
- Karakoram Range
- Mizo Hills
- Manipur Hills
- Nag Tibba Range
- Naga Hills
- Palani Hills
- Nilgiri Hills
- Pir Panjal Range
- Patkai Hills
- Satpura Range
- Purvanchal Range
- Shivalik Hills
- Western Ghats
- Vindhya Range
- Zaskar Range
Tallest Mountains in India
Listed below are the tallest mountains with their elevations and latitudes/longitudes:
|1. Kanchenjunga||8,586 m||27.42/88.08|
|2 Nanda Devi, Uttarakhand||7,816 m||30.376/79.971|
|3 Kāmet, Uttarakhand||7,756 m||30.92/79.593|
|4 Saser Kangri||7,672 m||34.867/77.753|
|5 Jongsong Peak||7,462 m||27.881/88.136|
|6 Kabru||7,412 m||27.616/88.116|
|7 Tent Peak||7,362 m||27.788/88.196|
|8 Badrīnāth, Uttarakhand||7,138 m||30.733/79.283|
|9 Nunkun, Kashmir||7,135 m||33.981/76.021|
|10 P'ao-han-li Shan||7,128 m||27.953/88.842|
|11 Trisūl, Uttarakhand||7,120 m||30.313/79.777|
National parks on the mountains of India
Namdhpha National Park, Corbett National Park, Royal Chitwan National Park, and the Great Himalayan National Park are some of the most popular national parks on the mountains of India. Some of the national parks lying on the lap of the mountains of India are described below:
Corbett National Park, Uttaranchal
The Corbett National Park is one of the oldest and most resourceful national parks in India. Located beside the banks of the Ramganga River, it is a well-maintained wildlife sanctuary. The park is mostly known for the big cats, specifically the tiger. It is the oldest tiger reserve in the country, established in 1973. Other than the tiger, you will also see elephants in this area.
The Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh
This national park is situated in the Kullu District. This region is characterized by its tropical and alpine forests. The park is also one of the biggest protected territories of the state. You will see rare varieties of animals in this area such as Ghoral, Musk Deer, Bharal, Thar, Brown Bear, Serow, Leopard and Snow Leopard. Birds like Khalij, Monal, Tragopan, and Cheer are frequently seen.
Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh
Namdapha National Park is famous for its wide biodiversity of plants and animals. It is a paradise for botany lovers. There is abundance of bamboos, canes, wild bananas, rare orchids and other types of trees. Big cats such as leopard, tiger, snow leopard (Panthera uncial), and clouded leopard are noticed.
Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Other than the abovementioned national parks, the following national parks are also popular:
- Dachigam National Park (Jammu and Kashmir)
- Dudhwa National Park (Uttar Pradesh)
- Hemis High Altitude National Park (Jammu and Kashmir)
- Govind Sagar Sanctuary (Himachal Pradesh)
- Kishtwar High Altitude National Park (Jammu and Kashmir)
- Gulmarg Biosphere Reserve (Jammu and Kashmir)
Last Updated on 02 February 2011