Chapter 1 – Resources and Development Questions and Answers: NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science – Geography

Class 10 Social Science – Geography NCERT book solutions for Chapter 1 - Resources and Development Questions and Answers.

1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
(a) Renewable
(b) Biotic
(c) Flow
(d) Non-renewable

Answer. (d) Non-renewable

(ii) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?
(a) Replenishable
(b) Human-made
(c) Abiotic
(d) Non-recyclable

Answer. (a) Replenishable

(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(b) Deforestation
(c) Over irrigation
(d) Overgrazing

Answer. (c) Over irrigation

(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
(a) Punjab
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(c) Haryana
(d) Uttarakhand

Answer. (d) Uttarakhand

(v) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Jharkhand

Answer. (b) Maharashtra

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

(i) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are the three states where black soil is found and cotton is the main crop grown in black soil.
(ii) Alluvial Soil is found in river deltas. Three main features of this type of soil are:
• It is very fertile.
• It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
• It has a high water retention capacity
(iii) Soil erosion can be controlled in the hilly areas by:
• Terrace farming
• ploughing across contour-lines
• Growing strips of grass between the crops.
(iv) Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. For example, plants, animals, human beings, etc.
Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example, soil, air, water, metals, etc.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain the land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

Answer:-(i) In India, the land is primarily used for agriculture, grazing and other activities like housing, construction of roads and industries. Some part of it is covered with forests and deserts. The pattern of the net sown area varies from one state to another state depending upon the climate and soil types. For example, about 80 percent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana is used for cultivation while in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands, it is even less than 10 percent. The part of the land which is covered by forests in India is about 22%.
The land under the forest has not increased since 1960–61 due to the increased use of land for agricultural activities, industrialisation and urbanisation. Increasing population and subsequent increase in demand for resources resulted in the degradation of forests. The land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.

(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?

Answer:-(ii) The following factors are responsible for technical and economic development leading to increased consumption of resources:
• Technological development led to efficient machinery. As a result, production increased ultimately leading to the consumption of more resources.
• Economic development raised people’s demands and the technological advancement led to greater exploitation of resources to meet their demands.
• Improved medical and health resources led to increased population which in turn resulted in increased consumption of resources.