World Heritage Sites in India | Updated List 2023

Location of World Heritage Sites in India

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Map of World Heritage Sites in India
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The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) lists and maintains the international World Heritage Programme. A UNESCO World Heritage Site can be any place such as a forest, lake, building, island, mountain, monument, desert, complex or a city; which has a special physical or cultural significance. It was in the year 1972 that a resolution was adopted by the General Conference of the UNESCO with a 'Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage'. The main objective of this resolution was to define the cultural and natural aspects of these sites.

It was during the seventh session of the World Heritage in 1983 that the first two sites - Agra Fort and Ajanta caves - were acknowledged as the heritage sites. Since then, over 35 new places have been added to the list. The latest entry are - Dholavira: a Harappan City and Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, which were added in 2021.

Let's take a look at the World Heritage Sites in India:

Kaziranga Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam - declared in 1985: Kaziranga Wild Life Sanctuary is a renowned wildlife sanctuary and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Spanning over 430 square kilometers, the park is home to the world's largest population of Indian one-horned rhinoceroses. It also harbors significant populations of tigers, elephants, and water buffaloes. The park's unique landscape comprises wetlands, grasslands, and dense forests, creating a diverse ecosystem. Kaziranga is known for its successful conservation efforts, including anti-poaching measures and habitat preservation. Visitors can experience thrilling wildlife safaris to witness these magnificent creatures in their natural habitat and enjoy the park's scenic beauty. It was established in the year 1908 and was declared as the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.

Manas Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam - declared in 1985: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a haven for biodiversity. Spanning over 950 square kilometers, it is home to a remarkable range of flora and fauna, including the endangered Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, pygmy hog, and Assam roofed turtle. The sanctuary encompasses diverse habitats such as grasslands, wetlands, and dense forests, offering a rich ecosystem. Manas is celebrated for its conservation efforts, which have led to the revival of species like the golden langur. Visitors can embark on wildlife safaris, nature walks, and birdwatching excursions to experience the sanctuary's natural wonders and contribute to its conservation endeavors. This Assam-based sanctuary was recognised for its rich biodiversity in 1985.

Mahabodhi Temple, Bihar - declared in 2002: The Mahabodhi Temple is a revered Buddhist pilgrimage site and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It holds immense religious significance as it is believed to be the place where Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment. The temple complex encompasses the sacred Bodhi tree under which Buddha meditated, along with various structures like the main temple, stupas, shrines, and viharas. The architecture reflects a blend of Indian and Buddhist styles, with intricate carvings and ornate decorations. The serene atmosphere of the temple complex attracts devotees and tourists from around the world, seeking spiritual solace and experiencing the essence of Buddhism.

Humayun's Tomb, Delhi - declared in 1993: The tomb holds great cultural significance as it was the first garden-tomb in the subcontinent. Constructed in the mid-16th century, it serves as the final resting place of Emperor Humayun, the second Mughal ruler. The tomb is an architectural marvel, showcasing the influence of Persian and Mughal design elements. Its grand structure features a majestic dome, intricate marble inlays, and beautiful gardens. This iconic monument is considered a precursor to the grandeur of the Taj Mahal and holds immense historical and cultural significance. It attracts visitors with its splendid architecture, serene ambiance, and captivating storytelling of the Mughal era.

Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi - declared in 1993: The red sandstone tower built in the 13th century was added to UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1993. The centerpiece of the complex is the iconic Qutb Minar, a towering minaret that stands at a height of 73 meters. Built in the 12th century, it is adorned with intricate carvings and inscriptions. The complex also includes other architectural gems such as the Alai Darwaza, the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, and the Iron Pillar of Delhi. These structures showcase the fusion of Indo-Islamic architecture, featuring intricate detailing, beautiful arches, and ancient ruins. The site attracts visitors with its historical importance, architectural splendor, and the rich cultural heritage it represents.

Red Fort Complex - declared in 2007: Mughal Emperor Shahjahan built Red Fort and its complex as a part of his new capital, Shahjahanabad in the 17th century. It gained recognition in 2007 as a part of the list of World Heritage Site. The complex features impressive red sandstone walls, magnificent gateways, and opulent palaces like the Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas. The intricate marble and inlay work, sprawling gardens, and a grand mosque within the complex showcase the architectural brilliance of the Mughal era. Today, the Red Fort stands as a testament to India's rich history and is a popular tourist attraction, hosting cultural events and the annual Independence Day celebrations.

Churches and Convents of Goa - declared in 1986: The Churches and Convents of Goa, located in the state of Goa, India, are a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a testament to the region's rich colonial history. Dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries, these churches and convents showcase a unique blend of Portuguese architectural styles with Indian influences. The complex includes notable structures such as the Basilica of Bom Jesus, Church of St. Francis of Assisi, and the Se Cathedral, known for its stunning Portuguese-Gothic design. These magnificent buildings are adorned with intricate woodwork, beautiful frescoes, and ornate altars, reflecting the religious and cultural significance of the time. Today, they stand as prominent landmarks and bear witness to the enduring legacy of Goa's colonial past. In 1986, these churches were distinguished as heritage sites.

Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat - declared in 2004: This cultural site was inscribed in 2004 as the World Heritage Site. It showcases the remains of an ancient fortified city dating back to the 8th century. The park encompasses a diverse range of structures, including palaces, temples, mosques, tombs, and stepwells, representing various architectural styles like Hindu, Islamic, and Jain. The centerpiece of the park is the sacred Pavagadh Hill, home to the Kalika Mata Temple. The park's historical significance, intricate carvings, and well-preserved structures provide a glimpse into the region's rich cultural heritage. It attracts visitors with its captivating architecture, religious importance, and stunning natural surroundings.

Group of Monuments at Hampi, Karnataka - declared in 1986: The group of temples, palaces and other monuments make Hampi an austere site. It was once the glorious capital of the Vijayanagara Empire in the 14th-16th centuries. The site is dotted with awe-inspiring temples, palaces, gateways, and other architectural marvels. The Virupaksha Temple, Vittala Temple, and Hazara Rama Temple are notable highlights. The monuments display a harmonious blend of Hindu and Islamic architectural styles, with intricate carvings and majestic structures. Hampi's historical significance, stunning landscapes, and cultural treasures make it a popular destination for history enthusiasts and travelers seeking to immerse themselves in ancient grandeur.

Group of Monuments at Pattadakal, Karnataka - declared in 1987: A testament to the architectural brilliance of the Chalukya dynasty. It is a complex of temples built between the 7th and 9th centuries, showcasing a fusion of architectural styles including Nagara, Dravidian, and Indo-Aryan. The temples, such as the Virupaksha Temple and the Mallikarjuna Temple, exhibit intricate carvings, exquisite sculptures, and intricate structural design. Pattadakal served as a major cultural and religious center, and the monuments reflect the historical and artistic legacy of the Chalukya empire. The site attracts visitors with its rich historical significance and stunning architectural marvels.

Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh - declared in 1989: The site houses a collection of ancient Buddhist structures dating back to the 3rd century BCE. The centerpiece is the Great Stupa, an imposing structure with intricately carved gateways known as toranas. The site also features monasteries, temples, and other Buddhist artifacts. The monuments at Sanchi represent the early development of Buddhist art and architecture, showcasing a blend of Indian and Greco-Buddhist styles. They serve as a pilgrimage site for Buddhists and attract visitors with their serene atmosphere, exquisite craftsmanship, and rich cultural heritage.

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh - declared in 2003: These rock shelters display evidence of human habitation dating back to the Paleolithic era, with cave paintings and rock art that span thousands of years. The site offers a unique glimpse into the lives and artistic expressions of early humans through intricate depictions of animals, hunting scenes, and daily life. The rock shelters also hold religious and cultural significance, with connections to Hindu mythology. Bhimbetka is a captivating destination for history enthusiasts and art lovers, providing a window into the ancient past.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh - declared in 1986: These stunning temples were built between the 9th and 11th centuries, showcasing intricate carvings and sculptures. The temples are known for their explicit depictions of human sexuality, symbolizing the celebration of love, beauty, and spirituality. The intricate detailing, architectural grandeur, and symbolic significance of the sculptures make Khajuraho a unique cultural landmark. The site attracts visitors with its exceptional craftsmanship, historical importance, and the intriguing fusion of spirituality and sensuality represented in its art.

Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra - declared in 1983: Carved into a horseshoe-shaped rock gorge, these ancient Buddhist caves date back to the 2nd century BCE and the 5th century CE. The caves are adorned with magnificent paintings and sculptures that depict the life and teachings of Buddha, as well as scenes from Jataka tales. The artistry and craftsmanship exhibited in the Ajanta Caves are remarkable, with detailed frescoes and intricate rock-cut architecture. The site attracts visitors with its spiritual ambiance, historical significance, and the enduring beauty of its ancient art.

Ellora Caves, Maharashtra - declared in 1983: Carved into the Charanandri Hills, these rock-cut caves span a period from the 6th to the 10th century CE. The site comprises Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain cave temples, showcasing a remarkable fusion of artistic styles. The caves feature intricate carvings, magnificent sculptures, and impressive architectural details. The Kailasa Temple, a monolithic structure, is a standout masterpiece. Ellora Caves attract visitors with their historical significance, cultural diversity, and the awe-inspiring craftsmanship that reflects the spiritual and artistic achievements of the past.

Elephanta Caves, Maharashtra - declared in 1987: The caves are located on Elephanta Island in Mumbai Harbor, Maharashtra, India, are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. These ancient caves date back to the 5th to 8th centuries and are dedicated to Lord Shiva. The caves consist of rock-cut sculptures, intricate carvings, and grand halls. The main attraction is the magnificent Trimurti sculpture, depicting Lord Shiva in three different forms. The caves showcase a blend of Hindu and Buddhist architectural styles. Visitors can explore the intricate craftsmanship, religious symbolism, and serene atmosphere of the Elephanta Caves, making it a popular destination for history, art, and spiritual enthusiasts.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) - declared in 2004: The headquarters of the Central Railways; this is a historic railway station located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Designed by British architect Frederick William Stevens, it was built in the late 19th century and is an outstanding example of Victorian Gothic Revival architecture blended with traditional Indian elements. The station stands as a symbol of Mumbai's colonial past and serves as a major transportation hub. Its grand fa├žade, adorned with spires, domes, and intricate sculptures, is a visual spectacle. The station's architectural beauty, historical significance, and bustling atmosphere make it a prominent landmark and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Sun Temple of Konark, Odisha - declared in 1984: It is a magnificent architectural marvel dedicated to the Hindu sun god, Surya. Built in the 13th century by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, the temple is renowned for its stunningly intricate carvings and detailed sculptures. The temple's unique design resembles a colossal chariot with wheels, pulled by horses, symbolizing the sun's movement across the sky. The intricate artwork showcases scenes from mythology, celestial beings, and various aspects of daily life. The Sun Temple of Konark stands as a testament to the extraordinary craftsmanship and artistic finesse of ancient Indian architecture.

Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan - declared in 1985: also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, is a renowned wildlife sanctuary located in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is a paradise for bird enthusiasts. The park spans over 29 square kilometers and is home to a diverse range of avian species, including both resident and migratory birds. The sanctuary provides a crucial habitat for over 350 bird species, including the iconic Siberian cranes. Apart from birds, the park also houses various mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. Visitors can explore the park through walking trails, cycle rickshaws, or boat rides, immersing themselves in the breathtaking beauty of nature and the captivating sight of birds in their natural habitat.

Jantar Mantar of Jaipur, Rajasthan - declared in 2004: Built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in the 18th century, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a testament to the astronomical knowledge and precision of ancient Indian astronomers. The site comprises a collection of architectural instruments used for astronomical observations and calculations. These instruments, made of stone and brass, are designed to measure time, track celestial movements, and study celestial bodies. Jantar Mantar showcases the remarkable scientific and technological advancements of its time and remains an important landmark for astronomers, history enthusiasts, and visitors seeking to explore the intersection of astronomy and ancient Indian architecture.

Great Living Chola Temples, Tamil Nadu - declared in 2004: These temples, namely Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur, Airavatesvara Temple in Darasuram, and Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple, are recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Built during the Chola dynasty in the 11th and 12th centuries, these temples showcase remarkable architectural brilliance and intricate stone carvings. They stand as masterpieces of Dravidian architecture, with towering vimanas (towers), intricately carved pillars, and exquisite sculptures depicting mythological narratives. The Great Living Chola Temples are not only sacred places of worship but also serve as a living testimony to the rich cultural heritage and architectural grandeur of the Chola dynasty.

Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu - declared in 1984: A treasure trove of ancient rock-cut temples and sculptures. Dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries, these monuments showcase the architectural and artistic prowess of the Pallava dynasty. The site features several remarkable structures, including the famous Shore Temple, Arjuna's Penance (a massive relief carving), Pancha Rathas (monolithic rock-cut temples), and various cave temples. The intricate carvings depict scenes from Hindu mythology, showcasing the rich cultural heritage of the region. The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram stands as a testament to the creativity and craftsmanship of ancient Indian civilizations.

Agra Fort, Uttar Pradesh - declared in 1983: It is an iconic Mughal-era fortress and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Built in the 16th century by Emperor Akbar, it served as the main residence of the Mughal emperors until the capital was shifted to Delhi. The fort showcases a fusion of Islamic, Persian, and Hindu architectural styles, with impressive red sandstone walls and intricate marble palaces, courtyards, and mosques within its complex. Notable structures within the fort include the Diwan-i-Aam (Hall of Public Audience), Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience), Jahangiri Mahal, and Khas Mahal. Agra Fort stands as a symbol of grandeur and power, offering visitors a glimpse into India's rich history and Mughal heritage.

Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh - declared in 1986: The historical city that served as the capital of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Emperor Akbar. Built in the 16th century, it is renowned for its architectural grandeur and unique blend of Islamic, Hindu, and Persian influences. The city showcases stunning palaces, mosques, and courtyards, including the Buland Darwaza (Gate of Victory), Jama Masjid, Panch Mahal, and Diwan-i-Khas. Fatehpur Sikri is also home to the Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chishti, a revered Sufi saint. Today, the site stands as a well-preserved testimony to the opulence and cultural richness of the Mughal period, attracting visitors from around the world.

The Taj Mahal, Uttar Pradesh - declared in 1983: The Taj Mahal is one of the most iconic and globally recognized monuments. Built by Emperor Shah Jahan in the 17th century, it is considered a masterpiece of Mughal architecture and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum constructed in white marble, adorned with intricate carvings and inlaid precious stones. It was built as a tribute to Shah Jahan's beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The monument is renowned for its symmetrical design, majestic dome, minarets, and its reflection in the surrounding pool. As an enduring symbol of love and beauty, the Taj Mahal attracts millions of visitors each year, mesmerized by its breathtaking elegance and historical significance.

Mountain Railways of India - declared in 1999, 2005 and 2008: The Mountain Railways of India is a collective term for three historic railway lines in India that are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These railway lines are the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway in West Bengal, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway in Tamil Nadu, and the Kalka-Shimla Railway in Himachal Pradesh. They were inscribed as World Heritage Sites in 1999, 2005 and 2008 respectively. These railways were built during the British colonial period and are remarkable for their engineering feat, scenic beauty, and historical significance. The narrow-gauge tracks traverse through steep mountains, lush valleys, and picturesque landscapes, providing an enchanting journey for passengers. The Mountain Railways of India are not only transportation modes but also living heritage that reflects the rich history and heritage of the regions they serve.

Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks, Uttarakhand: Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks were recognised in 1988 and then got extension in 2005. Nanda Devi National Park, named after the Nanda Devi peak, is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including the endangered snow leopard and Himalayan musk deer. It is surrounded by towering mountains and offers breathtaking views. The Valley of Flowers National Park, renowned for its vibrant alpine flowers, is a colorful paradise with a wide variety of endemic plant species. The parks are protected areas, preserving the natural beauty and ecological significance of the Himalayan region, and attracting nature enthusiasts and trekkers from around the world.

Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal - declared in 1987: It is renowned for being the largest mangrove forest in the world. The national park is situated in the delta region of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers, forming a unique ecosystem with a rich biodiversity. The Sundarbans is home to the Royal Bengal tiger, along with other wildlife such as crocodiles, spotted deer, and various bird species. The dense mangrove forests, vast network of rivers and creeks, and unique flora and fauna make the Sundarbans a truly remarkable and ecologically significant destination for nature lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.

Western Ghats - declared in 2012: Also known as the Sahyadri Mountain Range, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that stretches along the western coast of India. It is one of the eight "hottest hotspots" of biodiversity in the world, renowned for its rich flora and fauna. The Western Ghats is a mountain range of great geological and ecological significance, serving as a vital watershed for the Indian subcontinent. It is home to numerous endemic and endangered species, including the lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri tahr, and Malabar giant squirrel. The region encompasses lush forests, cascading waterfalls, and picturesque hill stations, making it a popular destination for nature lovers, trekkers, and wildlife enthusiasts. The Western Ghats is not only a natural treasure but also plays a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of the region.

Hill Forts of Rajasthan - declared in 2013: The Hill Forts of Rajasthan are a group of six majestic fortresses located on the hills of the Aravalli Range in the state of Rajasthan, India. These forts, namely Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Ranthambore, Gagron, Amber, and Jaisalmer, are recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. They showcase the architectural and cultural brilliance of the Rajput dynasties that ruled the region during different periods. Each fort has its unique features, including intricate carvings, palaces, temples, and defensive structures. These hill forts not only served as formidable fortifications but also as centers of power and cultural heritage. Today, they stand as iconic landmarks, attracting visitors with their grandeur and offering a glimpse into Rajasthan's rich history and architectural splendor.

Rani ki Vav, Gujarat - declared in 2014: Also known as the Queen's Stepwell, is an exceptional stepwell located in the town of Patan in Gujarat, India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is renowned for its intricate architecture and exquisite craftsmanship. Built during the 11th century by Queen Udayamati in memory of her husband, the stepwell is a marvel of ancient engineering. It features intricate sculptures, ornamental panels, and a series of steps leading down to the water level. Rani ki Vav served as a communal gathering place and a water source during the hot and dry seasons. The stepwell's intricate carvings depict mythological scenes, deities, and various aspects of Hindu cosmology, making it a cultural and artistic treasure of Gujarat.

Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh - declared in 2014: The Great Himalayan National Park is a protected area located in the western part of the Himalayan range in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014 for its outstanding biodiversity and unique ecological significance. The park covers a vast area of high-altitude alpine meadows, dense forests, and snow-capped peaks, providing a habitat for numerous plant and animal species, including several endangered ones. It is home to rare species like the Western Tragopan, Himalayan Tahr, and Snow Leopard. The park offers opportunities for trekking, wildlife viewing, and experiencing the pristine beauty of the Himalayas, making it a popular destination for nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers.

Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, Bihar - declared in 2002: The Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Bodh Gaya is a revered pilgrimage destination for Buddhists worldwide. It is the place where Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, is said to have attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. The temple complex includes the magnificent Mahabodhi Temple, which is adorned with intricate carvings and stands as a symbol of Buddhist architecture. The complex also encompasses various structures, monasteries, and meditation sites related to the life and teachings of Buddha. It holds immense religious and historical significance, attracting pilgrims and visitors seeking spiritual enlightenment and cultural understanding.

Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar - declared in 2016: The Nalanda Mahavihara site, situated in Bihar, India, is a UNESCO World Heritage site. It comprises the ruins of an ancient monastic and educational institution that thrived from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The site includes stupas, shrines, viharas (residential and educational buildings), and exquisite artwork in stucco, stone, and metal. Nalanda holds significance as the oldest university in the Indian Subcontinent, engaging in the systematic transmission of knowledge for a remarkable uninterrupted period of 800 years. The historical evolution of the site reflects the growth of Buddhism as a religion and the flourishing of monastic and educational traditions.

Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim - declared in 2016: This UNESCO World Heritage site showcases a remarkable assortment of landscapes, from sprawling plains and serene valleys to glistening lakes and awe-inspiring glaciers. The park boasts ancient forests that cloak the snow-capped mountains, including Mount Khangchendzonga, the third highest peak globally. Rich in mythology, the mountain and its surroundings hold profound significance, with numerous natural features such as caves, rivers, and lakes revered and worshipped by the indigenous people of Sikkim. These sacred narratives and traditions intertwine with Buddhist beliefs, forming the bedrock of Sikkimese identity.

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement* - declared in 2016: The transnational serial property of 17 sites, carefully selected from the works of Le Corbusier, spans across seven countries and serves as a testament to the revolutionary architectural language he pioneered, breaking away from traditional conventions. Constructed over a span of 50 years during Le Corbusier's dedicated and methodical exploration, these sites embody his vision. The ensemble includes notable structures like the Complexe du Capitole in Chandigarh (India).

Historic City of Ahmadabad, Gujarat - declared in 2017: The walled city of Ahmadabad, established by Sultan Ahmad Shah in the 15th century along the eastern bank of the Sabarmati River, showcases a remarkable architectural heritage from the sultanate era. The city's notable features include the Bhadra citadel, the fortified walls and gates of the Fort city, and a multitude of mosques, tombs, Hindu temples, and Jain temples from subsequent periods. The urban layout comprises closely-knit traditional houses known as "pols," situated within enclosed traditional streets called "puras." These areas are characterized by distinct elements like bird feeders, public wells, and religious institutions. As the capital of the State of Gujarat, Ahmadabad thrived for six centuries and remains a vibrant city to this day, preserving its rich historical legacy.

Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai, Maharashtra - declared in 2018: In the latter half of the 19th century, Mumbai emerged as a prominent global trading hub and embarked on an ambitious urban planning project. This endeavor resulted in the creation of architectural ensembles along the Oval Maidan, characterized first by Victorian Neo-Gothic style and later by the Art Deco aesthetic in the early 20th century. The Victorian buildings incorporated Indian elements tailored to the local climate, such as balconies and verandas. Meanwhile, the Art Deco structures, including cinemas and residential buildings, merged Indian design motifs with Art Deco imagery, giving rise to a distinctive style known as Indo-Deco. These two ensembles bear witness to the progressive stages of modernization experienced by Mumbai throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, showcasing the city's architectural evolution in response to changing times.

Jaipur City, Rajasthan - declared in 2019:The walled city of Jaipur, located in the northwestern state of Rajasthan, India, was founded in 1727 by Sawai Jai Singh II. It distinguishes itself from other cities in the region by being situated on a plain and being built according to a grid plan influenced by Vedic architecture. The streets are lined with continuous colonnades, and they intersect at the center, forming spacious public squares known as chaupars. The main streets are adorned with markets, shops, residences, and temples that exhibit uniform facades. Jaipur's urban planning reflects a fusion of ideas from ancient Hindu, early modern Mughal, and Western cultures. While the grid plan draws inspiration from Western models, the organization of various city sectors, known as chowkris, reflects traditional Hindu concepts. Originally designed to serve as a commercial capital, Jaipur has preserved its local commercial, artisanal, and cooperative traditions, which continue to thrive to this day.

Dholavira: a Harappan City, Gujarat - declared in 2021: Dholavira, an ancient Harappan city situated on the arid island of Khadir in Gujarat, India, flourished between 3000 and 1500 BCE. This remarkably well-preserved archaeological site showcases the ingenuity of the Harappan civilization in adapting to a challenging environment. With a fortified city encompassing a heavily fortified castle, ceremonial grounds, streets, and houses, Dholavira reflects a stratified social order. The city's sophisticated water management system attests to the community's ability to thrive amidst scarce resources. The site also features a vast cemetery with cenotaphs representing distinct Harappan views on death. Excavations have revealed bead workshops and a wide array of artifacts crafted from various materials, showcasing the culture's artistic and technological prowess. Evidence of inter-regional trade indicates connections with other Harappan cities, as well as regions like Mesopotamia and Oman. Dholavira stands as a testament to the remarkable achievements and civilization of the Harappan people.

Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, Telangana - declared in 2021: Ramappa Temple, also known as Rudreshwara Temple, is a Shiva temple situated in Palampet village, Telangana, India. Built during the Kakatiyan period (1123-1323 CE), the temple's construction began in 1213 CE and lasted approximately 40 years. The temple features intricately carved granite and dolerite pillars, with a unique pyramidal Vimana made of lightweight porous bricks. The sculptures within the temple depict regional dance customs and reflect the Kakatiyan culture. Located near the Ramappa Cheruvu reservoir, the temple is nestled amidst agricultural fields and forested hills, adhering to the concept of integrating temples with their natural surroundings.

List of World Heritage Sites in India

Heritage SitesState
Kaziranga Wild Life SanctuaryAssam
Manas Wild Life SanctuaryAssam
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh GayaBihar
Humayun's TombDelhi
Qutb Minar and its MonumentsDelhi
Red FortDelhi
Churches and Convents of GoaGoa
Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological ParkGujarat
Group of Monuments at HampiKarnataka
Group of Monuments at PattadakalKarnataka
Buddhist Monuments at SanchiMadhya Pradesh
Rock Shelters of BhimbetkaMadhya Pradesh
Khajuraho Group of MonumentsMadhya Pradesh
Ajanta CavesMaharashtra
Ellora CavesMaharashtra
Elephanta CavesMaharashtra
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)Maharashtra
Konarak Sun TempleOdisha
Keoladeo National ParkRajasthan
Jantar Mantar, JaipurRajasthan
Great Living Chola TemplesTamil Nadu
Group of Monuments at MahabalipuramTamil Nadu
Mountain Railways of IndiaTamil Nadu
Agra FortUttar Pradesh
Fatehpur SikriUttar Pradesh
Taj MahalUttar Pradesh
Mountain Railways of IndiaWest Bengal
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National ParksUttarakhand
Sundarbans National ParkWest Bengal
Western GhatsGoa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Karnataka
Hill Forts of Rajasthan (Ranthambhore), (Amber Sub-Cluster, (Jaisalmer), (Gagron)Rajasthan

Last Updated on: June 12, 2023