## Question 10. 1. Explain why

(a) The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain.

(b) Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though the height of the atmosphere is more than 100 km.

(c) Hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity even though pressure is force divided by area.

### Answer:(a) The height of the blood column is more for the feet as compared to that for the brain.

Consequently, the blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain.

(b) The variation of air-density with height is not linear. So, pressure also does not reduce linearly with height. The air pressure at a height h is given by P = P0e–αhwhere P0represents the pressure of air at sea-level and α is a constant.

### (c) Due to applied force on liquid, the pressure is transmitted equally in all directions inside the liquid. That is why there is no fixed direction for the pressure due to liquid. Hence hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity.

## Question 10. 2. Explain why

(a) The angle of contact of mercury with glass is obtuse, while that of water with glass is acute.

(b) Water on a clean glass surface tends to spread out while mercury on the same surface tends to form drops. (Put differently, water wets glass while mercury does not.)

(c) Surface tension of a liquid is independent of the area of the surface.

(d) Water with detergent dissolved in it should have small angles of contact.

(e) A drop of liquid under no external forces is always spherical in shape.

### Answer:(a) Let a drop of a liquid L be poured on a solid surface S placed in air A. If TSL,and TSAbe the surface tensions corresponding to solid-liquid layer, liquid-air layer and solid-air layer respectively and θ be the angle of contact between the liquid and solid, then

### TLACos θ + TSL=TSA

=>Cos θ=TSA-TSL/TLA

For the mercury-glass interface, TSA< TSL. Therefore, cos 0 is negative. Thus θ is an obtuse angle. For the water-glass interface, TSA> TSL. Therefore cos 0 is positive. Thus, θ is an acute angle.

(b) Water on a clean glass surface tends to spread out i.e., water wets glass because force of cohesion of water is much less than the force of adhesion due to glass. In case of mercury force of cohesion due to mercury molecules is quite strong as compared to adhesion force due to glass. Consequently, mercury does not wet glass and tends to form drops.

(c) Surface tension of liquid is the force acting per unit length on a line drawn tangentially to the liquid surface at rest. Since h as force is independent of the area of liquid surface therefore, surface tension is also independent of the area of the liquid surface.

(d) We know that the clothes have narrow pores or spaces which act as capillaries. Also, we know that the rise of liquid in a capillary tube is directly proportional to cosθ (Here θ is the angle of contact). As θ is small for detergent, therefore cos θ will be large. Due to this, the detergent will penetrate more in the narrow pores of the clothes.

(e) We know that any system tends to remain in a state of minimum energy. In the absence of any external force for a given volume of liquid its surface area and consequently. Surface energy is least for a spherical shape. It is due to this reason that a liquid drop, in the absence of an external force is spherical in shape.

## Question 10. 3. Fill in the blanks using the words from the list appended with each statement:

(a) Surface tension of liquids generally…………….with temperature. (increases/decreases)

(b) Viscosity of gases………………..with temperature, whereas viscosity of liquids…………..with temperature. (increases/decreases)

(c) For solids with elastic modulus of rigidity, the shearing force is proportional to…………………..while for fluids it is proportional to…………. (shear strain/rate of shear strain)

(d) For a fluid in steady flow, the increases inflow speed at a constriction follows from…………………………. while the decrease of pressure there follows from………………….(conservation of mass/Bernoulli’s principle)

(e) For the model of a plane in a wind tunnel, turbulence occurs at a…………….speed than the critical speed for turbulence for an actual plane. (greater/smaller)

### Answer:(a), decreases

(b) increases; decreases

(c) shear strain; rate of shear strain

(d) conservation of mass; Bernoulli’s principle

(e) greater.

## Question 10. 4. Explain why

(a) To keep a piece of paper horizontal, you should blow over, not under, it.

(b) When we try to close a water tap with our fingers, fast jets of water gush through the openings between our fingers.

(c) The size of a needle of a syringe controls flow rate better than the thumb pressure exerted by a doctor while administering an injection.

(d) A fluid flowing out of a small hole in a vessel results in a backward thurst on the vessel.

(e) A spinning cricket ball in air does not follow a parabolic trajectory.

### Answer:(a) When we blow over the piece of paper, the velocity of air increases. As a result, the pressure on it decreases in accordance with the Bernoulli’s theorem whereas the pressure below remains the same (atmospheric pressure). Thus, the paper remains horizontal.

(b) By doing so the area of outlet of water jet is reduced, so velocity of water increases according to equation of continuity av = constant.

(c) For a constant height, Bernoulli’s theorem is expressed as P +1/2 ρ v2= Constant

In this equation, the pressure P occurs with a single power whereas the velocity occurs with a square power. Therefore, the velocity has more effect compared to the pressure. It is for this reason that needle of the syringe controls flow rate better than the thumb pressure exerted by the doctor.

(d) This is because of principle of conservation of momentum. While the flowing fluid carries forward momentum, the vessel gets a backward momentum.

(e) A spinning cricket ball would have followed a parabolic trajectory has there been no air. But because of air the Magnus effect takes place. Due to the Magnus effect the spinning cricket ball deviates from its parabolic trajectory.

## Question 10. 5. A 50 kg girl wearing high heel shoes balances on a single heel. The heel is circular with a diameter 1.0 cm. What is the pressure exerted by the heel on the horizontal floor?

### Answer:

## Question 10. 6. Toricelli’s barometer used mercury. Pascal duplicated it using French wine of density 984 kg m-3. Determine the height of the wine column for normal atmospheric pressure.

### Answer:

## Question 10. 7. A vertical off-shore structure is built to withstand a maximum stress of 109Pa. Is the structure suitable for putting up on top of an oil well in the ocean? Take the depth of the ocean to be roughly 3 km, and ignore ocean currents.

### Answer:Here, Maximum stress = 109Pa, h = 3 km = 3 x 103m;

p (water) = 103kg/m3and g = 9.8 m/s2.

The structure will be suitable for putting upon top of an oil well provided the pressure exerted by sea water is less than the maximum stress it can bear.

Pressure due to sea water, P = hρg = 3 x 103x 103x 9.8 Pa = 2.94 x 107Pa

Since the pressure of sea water is less than the maximum

## Question 10. 8. A hydraulic automobile lift is designed to lift cars with a maximum mass of 3000 kg. The area of cross-section of the piston carrying the load is 425 cm2. What maximum pressure would the smaller piston have to bear?

### Answer:

### This is also the maximum pressure that the smaller piston would have to bear.

## Question 10. 9. A U tube contains water and methylated spirit separated by mercury. The mercury columns in the two arms are in level with 10.0 cm of water in one arm and 12.5 cm of spirit in the other. What is the relative density of spirit?

### Answer:For water column in one arm of U tube,h1= 10.0 cm; ρ1(density) = 1 g cm-3

For spirit column in other arm of U tube,h2= 12.5 cm; ρ2=?

As the mercury columns in the two arms of U tube are in level, therefore pressure exerted by each is equal.

Henceh1ρ1g =h2ρ2g or ρ2= h1ρ1/h2=10 x 1/12.5 = 0.8 g cm-3

Therefore, relative density of spirit = ρ2/ρ1= 0.8/1 = 0.8

## Question 10. 10. In Q.9, if 15.0 cm of water and spirit each are further poured into the respective arms of the tube, what is the difference in the levels of mercury in the two arms? (Relative density of mercury = 13.6)

### Answer:

Height of the water column,h1= 10 + 15 = 25 cm

Height of the spirit column,h2= 12.5 + 15 = 27.5 cm

Density of water,ρ1= 1 g cm–3

Density of spirit,ρ2= 0.8 g cm–3

Density of mercury = 13.6 g cm–3

Lethbe the difference between the levels of mercury in the two arms.

Pressure exerted by heighth, of the mercury column:

=hρg

=h× 13.6g…(i)

Difference between the pressures exerted by water and spirit:

=ρ1h1g–ρ2h2g

=g(25 × 1 – 27.5 × 0.8)

= 3g…(ii)

Equating equations(i)and(ii), we get:

13.6hg = 3g

h= 0.220588 ≈ 0.221 cm

Hence, the difference between the levels of mercury in the two arms is 0.221 cm.

## Question 10. 11. Can Bernoulli’s equation be used to describe the flow of water through a rapid motion in a river? Explain.

### Answer:Bernoulli’s theorem is applicable only for there it ideal fluids in streamlined motion. Since the flow of water in a river is rapid, way cannot be treated as streamlined motion, the theorem cannot be used.

### Question 10. 12. Does it matter if one uses gauge instead of absolute pressures in applying Bernoulli’s equation? Explain.

Answer:No, it does not matter if one uses gauge instead of absolute pressures in applying Bernoulli’s equation, provided the atmospheric pressure at the two points where Bernoulli’s equation is applied are significantly different.