Chapter 5 – Primary Activities Questions and Answers: NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: (Fundamentals of Human Geography)

Class 12 Geography: (Fundamentals of Human Geography) NCERT book solutions for Chapter 5 - Primary Activities Questions and Answers.

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Which one of the following is not a plantation crop?
(a) Coffee
(b) Sugarcane
(c) Wheat
(d) Rubber

(c) Wheat

In which one of the following countries co-operative farming was the most successful experiment?
(a) Russia
(b) Denmark
(c) India
(d) The Netherlands

(b) Denmark

Growing of flowers is called:
(a) Truck farming
(b) Factory farming
(c) Mixed fanning
(d) Floriculture

(d) Floriculture

Which one of the following types of cultivation was developed by European colonists?
(a) Kolkoz
(b) Viticulture
(c) Mixed farming
(d) Plantation

(d) Plantation

In which one of the following regions is extensive commercial grain cultivation not practised?
(a) American Canadian prairies
(b) European Steppes
(c) Pampas of Argentina
(d) Amazon Basin

(d) Amazon Basin

In which of the following types of agriculture is the farming of citrus fruit very important?
(a) Market gardening
(b) Mediterranean agriculture
(c) Plantation agriculture
(d) Co-operative farming

(b) Mediterranean agriculture

Which one type of agriculture amongst the following is also called ‘slash and bum agriculture?
(a) Extensive subsistence farming
(b) Primitive subsistence farming
(c) Extensive commercial grain cultivation
(d) Mixed farming

(b) Primitive subsistence farming

Which one of the following does not follow monoculture?
(a) Dairy farming
(b) Mixed farming
(c) Plantation agriculture
(d) Commercial grain farming

(b) Mixed farming

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.

These days the biggest problem being faced by the shifting cultivators is of shortening cycles of jhum, which makes the entire practice unsustainable.
Also there are several restrictions imposed by governments through forest acts etc., which hinder the free movement of
tribes and practice of shifting cultivation.
Shifting cultivation is sustainable (only for self -consumption) in nature, hence it is unable to meet with the market demand and therefore there is no scope for it in the increasing globalized markets.
With the infiltration of non tribals in the tribal areas, tribals are adopting to modem agricultural practices which are more productive and environmentally sustainable.
To support a small population, a huge land resource base is required, ultimately it leads to soil erosion and land degradation.

Market gardening is practiced near urban areas. Why?

Market gardening specializes in the cultivation of high value perishable crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. They are situated close to urban markets mainly because of the high value crops.
The crops are costly, hence they need to be situated close to a market where people have high purchasing power and also demand for high valued crops. In such a situation urban areas are the perfect markets.
These crops are perishable in nature; hence farms cannot be situated far away from the main market. Therefore, farms are situated close to the urban markets so as to prevent crops from getting stale.

Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.

Dairy products are highly perishable in nature. They have a very small shelf life. For their supply to overseas and distant markets, adequate storage facilities with regulated temperature and storage conditions is essential. Initially supply of dairy products was limited to nearby markets but development of storage, preservation and transportation facilities have widened their coverage.
Modem transportation such as refrigerated trucks, ships with special cargoes and faster means of transportation like airways provide with adequate facilities, which allow transportation of dairy products to far off markets without spoilage. Refrigeration prevents dairy products from getting spoiled. It increases their durability. Hence dairy products can be sold over far off places.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:
Differentiate between Nomadic Herding and Commercial Livestock Rearing.


Nomadic Herding Commercial Livestock Rearing
(i) In nomadic herding herders move with their animals from place to place, and rely on them totally for food, cloth and transportation. (i) Commercial livestock rearing is a modern practice of rearing animals for export of animal products.
(ii) It is a primitive subsistence activity. (ii) It is a modern scientific, market oriented activity.
(iii) Multiple animals are kept depending upon the region. (iii) Single type of animals are kept.
(iv) Herders keep on moving with animals from one place to another according to availability of pasture and water. They also practice transhumance. The area of a tribe is decided by matter of tradition. (iv) It is carried out on huge permanent ranches which are scientifically managed parcels
(v) Generally related to nomadic tribes (v) Associated with western developed countries.
(vi) Little or no capital is utilized. (vi) High capital intake and spent on caring, feeding, breeding of animals.
(vii) Primarily a subsistence activity, in which herder rely on animals for their need of food, cloth, transportation etc. (vii) It is market oriented activity where animals like horse, sheep are reared to obtain products like meat, hides etc. for sales in national as well as international markets.
(viii) No modern technological support. (viii) It is highly mechanized

Discuss the important characteristic features of plantation agriculture. Name a few important plantation crops from different countries.

Originally introduced by the Europeans in colonies situated in the tropics, plantation agriculture is
distinct from other kinds of agricultural practises because of its specific features.
The characteristic features of this type of farming are:
Profit oriented large-scale production system
Large estates and plantations
Huge capital investment
Totally market oriented
Scientific method of cultivation
Cheap and large skilled labour supply
It is a link between agriculture and industry.
They are provided with well-developed transportation facilities where raw material provided by them is processes.
Important Plantation Crops:
The French established cocoa and coffee plantations in West Africa.
The British set up
Large tea gardens in India and Sri Lanka,
Rubber plantations in Malaysia and
Sugarcane and banana plantations in West Indies.
Spanish and Americans invested heavily in coconut and sugarcane plantations in the Philippines.
The Dutch once had monopoly over sugarcane plantation in Indonesia.
Some coffee fazendas (large plantations) in Brazil are still managed by Europeans.
Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which was the first activity carried out by human beings?

Hunting and gathering are then oldest activities carried out by human beings.

Question 2.
Who are the red collar workers?

People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers due to the oudoor nature of their work.

Question 3.
Why do the products from gathering activities cannot compete in the world market?

Products of these activities cannot compete in the world market as
Synthetic products of better quality and lower prices have replaced many items supplied by gatherers in the tropical forests, unable to face competition.
As it is a low technology subsistence activity not much surplus is there.

Question 4.
Which factors affect the choice of animals in different regions of nomadic herding?

People living in different climatic conditions domesticate animals found in those regions. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending upon the amount and quality of water and pasture.

Question 5.
Define nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism.

It is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on their animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport. They move from one place to another along with their livestock, depending upon the amount and quality of water and pasture.

Question 6.
Why is the number of pastoral nomads decreasing?

Number of pastoral nomads fias been decreasing and the areas under them are shrinking because of
imposition of political boundaries
new settlement plans by different countries.

Question 7.
Name the areas where commercial livestock rearing is practised.

The areas are: New Zealand, Australia, Argentina, Uruguay and United States of America.

Question 8.
Define subsistence agriculture.

Subsistence agriculture is the agriculture in which the producers consume most of the products grown. The output is generally for consumption by farmer and his family.

Question 9.
What are the other names of primitive subsistence agriculture?

Shifting cultivation and slash and burn agriculture.

Question 10.
What is shifting agriculture known as in the following?
(i) Central America and Mexico
(ii) Indonesia and Malaysia
(iii) North-east India.

Central America and Mexico —Milpa
Indonesia and Malaysia—Ladang
North East India—Slash and burn (Jhuming).

Give the major plantation crops of the following countries:
(i) Sri Lanka
(ii) West Indies
(iii) Malaysia
(iv) Philippines

Sri Lanka – Tea
West Indies – Sugarcane and banana
Malaysia – Rubber plantation
Philippines – Coconut and sugarcane

Question 12.
What is the plantation crop of Brazil? What is the name given to the plantation farms?

The plantation crop of Brazil is coffee and the farms are called Fazendas.

Question 13.
Define viticulture.

Viticulture is grape cultivation which is speciality of Mediterranean region.

Question 14.
Define truck farming.

It is the type of farming where farmers specialize in and grow vegetables only. The distance of truck farms from the market is governed by the distance a truck can cover overnight.

Question 15.
Define factory farming.

Factory farming is a modern development in the industrial regions of West Europe where livestock specially poultry and cattle rearing is done in stalls and pens and fed on manufactured feedstuff and carefully supervised against diseases.

Question 16.
Which country first introduced collective farming?

Erstwhile Soviet Union, under the socialist regime first introduced collective farming.

Question 17.
Name two countries where cooperative farming is successful.

Cooperative farming has been very successful in Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden and Italy. (Any two)

Question 18.
Define mining.

Mining is a primary activity which involves the extraction of minerals from surface or beneath the surface of the earth’s crust for further processing.

Question 19.
Define primary activity.

All the economic activities which are directly dependent on nature are primary activities. They refer to the utilization of Earth’s resources such as land, water, vegetation, building materials and minerals, etc. It includes hunting gathering, pastoralism, fishing, lumbering, forestry, agriculture and mining.

Question 20.
What do you mean by economic activities?

Human activities which generate income are known as economic activities. Economic activities are broadly grouped into four categories:
Primary Activities
Secondary Activities
Tertiary Activities
Quaternary Activities

Question 21.
Commercial livestock rearing is a specialized activity. Substantiate.

Commercial livestock rearing is a specialized activity because under this only one type of animal is reared. Important animals include sheep, cattle, goats and horses. The products obtained by these animals like meat, skin and wool, hides are processed and packed scientifically to be exported to world markets.

Question 22.
What do you mean by Extensive Commercial Grain Agriculture?

In this type of farming, wheat is the principal crop and the size of farm is very large and entire operations of cultivation from ploughing to harvesting are mechanized.

Question 23.
Why is dairy farming practised mainly near urban and industrial centres?

Fresh milk and dairy products produced in the dairy farming are easily sold in the neighborhood urban market. Dairy products are perishable commodities therefore they have to be sold at the earliest. Urban centers are large market for the daily products.

Question 24.
What do you mean by cooperative farming? .

Co-operative farming is done under a cooperative society formed by a group of farmers. Under this, all farmers of the society pool in their resources voluntarily for more efficient and profitable farming. Individuals farms remain intact and fanning is a matter of cooperative initiative.