Chapter 9 – Recent Developments in Indian Politics Questions and Answers: NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science (Politics In India Since Independence)

Class 12 Political Science (Politics In India Since Independence) NCERT book solutions for Chapter 9 - Recent Developments in Indian Politics Questions and Answers.


1. Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni… and arrange the file chronologically.
(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.
(b) Formation of Janata Dal.
(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid.
(d) Assassination of India Gandhi.
(e) The formation of NDA government.
(f) Godhra incident and its fallout.
(g) Formation of UPA government.

Answer: (a) Assassination of India Gandhi(1984).
(b) Formation of Janata Dal (1989)
(c) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir (1990)
(d) The demolition of Babri Masjid (1992)
(e) The formation of NDA government (1997)
(g) Formation of UPA government (2004)

2. Match the following:

Answer: (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii).

3. State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?

Answer: In the decade of eighties, the country witnessed five main developments which had a long lasting impact on politics:
1. End of Congress system.
2. Mandal issues
3. New Economic Reforms
4. Babri Masjid Issues
5. Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi 1989 elections led to defeat of Congress and emerged the era of ‘Multi Party- System’ when no single party secured majority in Lok Sabha elections since 1989. It led the era of coalition government also when regional parties played an crucial role in forming a ruling alliance.
Since 1989, there have been nine governments at the centre either coalition government or minority government supported by other parties. In this phase, government could be formed only with the participation of many regional parties.
The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties to represent Dalits and backward classes and regional assertions as well.

4. “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?

Answer: The statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics the emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement:
1. Coalition politics has shifted the focus from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
2. Most parties of NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of B JP still they came together to form government and remained in power also for full term.

5. Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.

Answer: The major trends in the electoral performance of BJP since 1989 can be traced as follows:
1. In the elections of 1989, the National front under V.P. Singh came to power supported by left front and BJP from outside because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power. Due to Mandal Commission Report and implementation of its recommendations forced BJP to reconsider its support and finally withdrew it. Thus, in November 1990, the rule of National Front came to an end.
2. In 1996 BJP minority government was formed for a short period. In June 1996 BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus collapsed.
3. From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed alliances NDA (National Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The regional Parties demanded more share in the government to extend their support.
4. The political competition during nineties and divided between the coalition led by BJP and coalition led by Congress.

6. In spite of the decline of Congress dominance the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer: The defeat of Congress Party in 1989 marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in country:
1. Congress improved performance and came back to power after mid term elections in 1991.
2. It also supported United Front government.
3. In 1996, the left continued to support the non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
4. Thus, Congress remained an important party and ruled country more than any other party even during the period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.

7. Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.

Answer: In the first decade of electoral politics India did not have a recognised opposition party. But some of vibrant and diverse opposition parties had come into being even before the first General Election of 1952 as the non-Congress parties. Hence, the roots of almost all the non-Congress parties of today can be traced to one or the other of the opposition parties of 1950s.
All these opposition parties gained only a representation, still their presence played a crucial role in maintaining democratic character of system. Hence due to following reasons two party system is required for successful democracy:
1. Within two party systems, the opposition party offers a sustained and principled criticism of policies and practices of ruling party keeping it under a strict check.
2. By keeping democratic political alternative alive, these parties prevented the resentment with the system from turning anti-democratic.
On the basis of above mentioned features it is justifiable to have a two party system which have following advantages:
1. India has arrived at more competitive politics.
2. Political parties act within the spheres of consensus.
3. -New forms, vision, pathways of development have been identified.
4. Issues like poverty, displacement, minimum wages, livelihood and social security are being put on political agenda.
5. Issues of justice and democracy are being voiced by various classes, castes and regions to remind states its responsibility.

8. Read the passage and answer the
questions below:
Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interest,…. An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests.
—Zoya Hasan
(a) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
(b) Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
(c) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?

Answer: (a) The author calls challenges to coalition government as well as coalition in Congress party itself to trigger a new emphasis on self-representation.
(b) To unsolve a party system to accommodate diverse interests but the political parties formed under the leadership of Kanshi Ram for Dalits only.
(c) It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests to maintain the culture of India ‘Unity in Diversity’ so that there should be no space for separatist movements in India.

Very Short Answer Type Questions [ 1 Mark]

1. Name two alliances/fronts that formed the government at the centre in 1989 and 1996 respectively.

Answer: National front-1989,United front-1996.

2. Mention any two incidents of violence against minority community which are a threat to democracy.

Answer: 1. Violent anti-Mandal protest
2. Godhra incident

3. What is the difference between a coalition party and coalition in Congress system?

Answer: Coalition party government refers government of more than two regional and political parties whereas coalition in Congress system refers to encouragement of various factions inside the party with different ideologies.

4. Which organisation took up the cause of Bahujans?

Answer: The Backward and Minority Classes Employees Federation (BAMCEF) took various steps and strong position in favour of political power to Bahujans including SCs, STs, OBCs and minorities.

5. What was the status of BSP?

Answer: The Bahujan Samaj Party emerged under the leadership of Kanshi Ram supported by Dalit voters in Punjab, Haryana and U.P. But in 1989 and 1991 elections, it achieved a breakthrough success in U.P.

6. When did the phase of coalition politics begin?

Answer: With elections of 1989, coalition politics began in India i.e. National front in 1989, United Front in 1996 and 1997 and UPA in 2004.

7. When were new economic reforms announced?

Answer: In 1991.
Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]

1. AWho was the chairperson of Mandal Commission? State any one recommen¬dation made by him/her.

Answer: Bindeshwari Prasad Mandal was the chairperson of Mandal Commission set up in 1978 to investigate the extent of educational and social backwardness among various sections of society and recommend ways to identify these classes.
The Mandal Commission gave its recommendations in 1980:
1. The commission advised that backward classes should be understood to mean backward castes since many castes other than the SCs were also treated as low in caste hierarchy
2. Reservation 27% seats in educational institutions and government jobs for these groups.
3. It recommended land reforms to improve the condition of OBCs.
4. Hence, Mandal commission made recommendations in economic and occupational structures.

2. State any two major political happenings of 1984 in India.

Answer: 1. Assassination of Indira Gandhi
2. Lok Sabha elections were held.

3. What was change in electoral performance of Congress party and BJP from 1984¬2004?

Answer: 1. In the elections of 1989, Congress secured 197 seats but did not get majority. Therefore, it decided to sit in opposition.
2. The National Front under V.P. Singh came to power supported by left front and BJP from outside.
3. The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991 led to emergence of Congress as the single largest party and formed the government supported by AIADMK.
4. In 1996, BJP minority government was formed for short period. Later in June 1996 United Front with the support of Congress formed the
Government and H.D. Deve Gowda became Prime Minister and after 11 months I.K. Gujral came to power to rule till March 1998.
5. From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and other parties formed alliances NDA (National Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of Atal Behari Vajpayee and regional parties demanded more share in government to extend its support.
6. In the elections of May 2004, Congress and its allies formed UPA (United Progressive Alliance) and came to power and Manmohan Singh became Prime Minister.

4. When was India’s New Economic Policy launched? Who was its chief architect?

Answer: It was launched in 1991 as the structure adjustment programme and it was started by the then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao:
1. India’s New Economic Policy was launched by the then Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh.
2. The economic changes first became visible in 1991 and radically changed the direction that Indian Economy had pursued since independence towards liberalised and open economy.

5. What happened to the state government after demolition of Babri Masjid?

Answer: 1. The BJP state government was dismissed.
2. Alongwith that, other states where the BJP was in power, were also put under President’s rule.
3. A case against Chief Minister of U.P. was registered in Supreme Court.

6. What led to the serious debate over secularism?

Answer: The demolition of disputed mosque at Ayodhya on December 6,1992, by Karseva, led to a serious debate over secularism:
1. Most political parties condemned the demolition and declared it to be against secularism.
2. A debate took place about using religious sentiments for electoral purposes.

7. List the four groups to be emerged in 1990s.

Answer: 1. Parties in coalition with Congress— UPA (United Progressive Alliance).
2. Parties in alliance with BJP—NDA (National Democratic Alliance).
3. Left front parties (Left Parties).
4. Other parties not to be part of the rest (Others).