Look at the diagram showing the positive feedback mechanism on page 13. Can you list the inputs that went into tool making? What were the processes that were strengthened by tool-making?
After going through the positive feedback mechanism following points can be inferred:
(a) Inputs that helped in tool making:
Increased brain size and capacity of brain
Visual surveillance long distance
Walking while foraging and hunting.
(b) The processes that were strengthened by tool making:
Increase in size and capacity of brain
Visual surveillance, long distance walking while foraging and hunting.
Humans and mammals such as monkeys and apes have certain similarities in behaviour and anatomy. This indicates that humans have possibly evolved from the . apes. List these resemblances in two columns under the headings of
(a) behaviour and
Are there any differences that are noteworthy?
Monkeys and Apes
1. Humans can climb on trees.
Monkeys and apes can also climb on trees.
2. Mothers give birth to their young ones.
Monkeys also give birth to their young ones.
3. They can walk long distances.
They can also walk long distances.
Monkeys and Apes
1. Humans are vertebrates.
1. They are also vertebrates.
2. Humans have two feet and two hands.
2. Monkeys and apes are also quadrupeds.
Discuss the arguments advanced in favor of the regional continuity model of human origins. Do you think it provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence? Give reasons for your answer.
According to the Regional Continuity Model, the Homo sapiens evolved in different regions at different rates into modern humans. So there was a variation in the first appearance of modern humans in different parts of the world. It was based on the regional differences in the features of present day humans. The advocates of this view found that the dissimilarities are due to the differences between the Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis populations of the same regions.
The Regional Continuity Model does not give a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence.
Which of the following do you think is best documented in the archaeological record: (a) gathering, (b) tool making and (c) use of fire?
Tool making is documented in the archaeological record.
Discuss the extent to which: (a) hunting and (b) constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language. What other modes of communication could have been used for these activities?
(a) Use of language helped hunting activities of human beings in numerous ways:
Now people are in a position of organizing and managing hunting expeditions
They are now free to exchange their ideas about different animals in different regions.
They could now discuss the nature and behavior of animals.
They could now discuss regarding the types of tools to be used.
(b) Language helped in constructing shelters for early humans in the following ways:
Now people could discuss regarding secure and safe places for the construction of shelters.
Now people could gather information about the materials used in the construction of shelter.
Information regarding resources in and around their surroundings can be easily obtained.
They were now in a position to discuss the means to protect their shelters in severe conditions.
Other modes: Signs, symbols, cave paintings, engraving on walls and on the ceilings of caves were the other modes of communication used for various activities
Choose any two developments each from Timelines 1 and 2 at the end of the chapter and indicate why these are significant.
Timeline 1 (mya)
Primates; Monkeys in Asia and Africa
(Superfamily) Hominoids; Gibbons, Asian orang-utan and African apes (gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo or ‘pygmy’ chimpanzee)
Branching out of hominoids and hominids
Earliest stone tools
Cooling and drying of Africa, resulting in decrease in woodlands and increase in grassland
Extinction of Australopithecus
‘Archaic’ sapiens, Homo heidelbergensis
Homo sapiens (Modern humans)
Timeline 2 (years ago)
Earliest evidence of burials
Extinction of Homo erectus
Development of voice box
Archaic Homo sapiens skull in the Narmada valley, India
Emergence of modern humans
Emergence of Neanderthals
Earliest evidence of hearths
Extinction of Neanderthals
Earliest evidence of figurines made of fired clay
Invention of sewing needles
Developments from Timeline-1
The evidence of the first Hominids was found about 5.6 mya. The Hominids evolved from Hominoids. They had some common features. Hominids had larger brain than Hominoids. Hominids had an upright posture and bipedal locomotion. There was a marked difference in regard to hand. It helped them in use of tools.
Around 2.5 mya, large parts of the earth were covered with snow. There were major changes in the environment. It led to expansion of grassland.
Developments from Timeline-2
Around 200,000 years ago, the evolution of the voice box took place. After the evolution of voice box, now the man was about to speak and express his views.
About 27,000 years ago, the earliest evidence of figurines made of fired clay was also found. The invention of sewing machines made the life of people more comfortable.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which sources enable us to understand the history of early humans?
The sources which enable us understand the history of early humans are stone tools, fossils, etc.
What do you know about Carl Fuhlrott?
Carl Fuhlrott was a teacher and natural historian in Germany, Dusseldorf. He was handed over a skull and some skeletal fragments of early humans by workmen who were engaged in quarrying for limestone in the Neander valley region in August 1856.
Name the book published by Charles Darwin. When was it published and what did he argue in it?
The book published by Charles Darwin was ‘ On the Origin of Species’. It was published on 24 November, 1859. In it, he argued about the evolution of mankind.
The word ‘Fossils’ is used to describe the remains of very old plants, human beings or animals which have left their marks on the rock. These remains are preserved for many years.
What are the two differences between Hominids and Hominoids?
The differences between Hominids and Hominoids are as follows:
Hominoids have a smaller brain as compared to Hominids.
Hominids have an upright posture and bipedal locomotion while Hominoids are quadrupeds.
Write any two evidences that Hominoids have African origin.
Evidences which suggest that Hominoids have African origin are:
A group of African apes is closely related to Hominoids.
Early Hominoids have been found in East Africa dated back to 5.6 mya.
To which family does Hominids belong to?
Hominids belong to Hominidae family. This family belongs to all forms of human beings existing on the earth.
Describe in brief the distinctive features of Hominids.
The distinctive features of Hominids are as follows:
They have large brain size.
They have bipedal locomotions and upright posture.
How will you differentiate Hominoids from monkeys?
Hominoids are different from monkeys in following ways:
Hominoids have a larger body.
They do not have tails like monkeys.
There is a longer period of development and dependency amongst Hominoids.
What are ‘Genus’? Name two important genus of Hominids.
Hominids are divided into different branches. They are known as genus. Two different genus of Hominids are Australopithecus and Homo.
Define ‘Species’. How human species are differentiated from each other?
The term ‘Species’ is used to describe the group of organisms that can produce fertile offsprings. Human species are differentiated from each other on the basis of the structure of their bones.
When did glaciation phase come into being? What were its impact?
The glaciation phase is literally known as Ice Age. It came into being around 2.5 mya.
Temperature started decreasing.
Grassland began to expand at the cost of forests.
How have the fossils of human species been classified?
The fossils of human species have been classified by the scientists into three categories. These are:
Name two places where the fossils of Homo habilis have been discovered.
The places where the fossils of Homo habilis have been discovered are:
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)
Where were the fossils of earlier Homo erectus found?
They were found at following sites:
Give two examples where the names of the fossils are derived from. (HOTS)
Homo heidelbergensis: The species of Homo heidelbergensis have been discovered from German city Heidelberg.
Homo neanderthalensis: Its species have been found in Neander valley, Dusseldorf, a German city.
The fossils of which Homo heidelbergensis have been widely distributed and where they are found? (HOTS)
The fossils of Homo heidelbergensis have been widely distributed. They are found in different parts of Africa, Asia and Europe.
Write any two differences between Australopithecus and Homo.
Australopithecus and Homo are different from each other on account of the following reasons:
Australopithecus has a smaller brain as compared to Homo.
Australopithecus has heavier jaws and larger teeth as compared to Homo who have smaller jaws and teeth.
Who were Primates? When did they come into existence?
Primates were a sub-group of a large group of mammals, i.e. monkeys, apes and humans. The Primates came into existence in about 36 mya.
Write any two evidences to show that Hominids originated in Africa.
The following evidences suggest that Hominids originated in Africa:
African monkeys are closely related to Hominids.
Their earlier removing has been traced from Eastern Africa.
What is meant by Australopithecus? Why are the earliest human called so?
The word Australopithecus is derived from Latin word ‘austral’ means southern and a Greek word ‘pithekos’ which means ‘apes’. Hence, the word means southern apes (Southern Monkey). The earliest human is called so because he resembles them.
When and where were the traces of earliest Australopithecus found?
The traces of earliest Australopithecus were found from Olduvai Gorge by Mary and Louis Leaky on 17th July, 1959.
How did early man obtain his food?
Early man obtained his food by gathering, hunting and fishing.
When did hunting begin? From where do we get its earliest evidence?
Hunting began about 500,000 years ago. We get the earliest evidence of hunting from Boxgrove in Southern England.
Where is Dolni Vestonice? Why is it famous for?
Dolni Vestonice is in Czech Republic. It is famous for hunting sites.
What are artefacts?
Artefacts are man-made objects, which include several kinds of articles such as tools, paintings, sculptures, etc.
When were the caves and open-air sites began to be used? From where do we get its evidence?
The caves and open-air sites began to be used around between 400,000 and 125,000 years ago. We get evidence of such sites from Lazaret cave in Southern France.
What are the advantages of living in caves? (VBQ)
Advantages of living in caves are given below:
It helped in protecting men from severe cold.
It also protected them from the predators.
It also protected them from the danger of wild animals.
From where do we find the pieces of baked clay and burnt bone along with stone tools?
We find the pieces of baked clay and burnt bones from Chesowanja, Kenya and Swartkrans. These tools are dated between 1.4 and 1 mya.
How did the discovery of fire help early man?
The discovery of fire helped early man in the following ways:
It helped him cook his food.
It helped him protect from the danger of wild animals.
From where do we get the earliest evidence for making and use of stone tools? Who were earliest tool makers?
We get the earliest evidence for making and use of stone tools from two sites:
The Australopithecus were the first or earliest stone tool makers.
How do we notice the improvement in the technique for making tools for hunting wild animals? When did such changes occur?
With the use of stone tools like spear throwers, bow and the arrow, we notice the improvement in technique for making tools. Such changes occurred around 35,000 years ago.
When did spoken language emerge?
Spoken language emerged as early as 2 mya. Its emergence has been seen closely connected with art.
Where is Altamira cave site? Who brought these caves into notice and when?
Altamira cave site is in Spain. The Altamira caves were brought into notice by Marcelino sanz de Sautuola and his daughter, Maria. The site came into notice in November 1879.
Name a few places where cave painting depicting the pictures of animals have been found.
The cave painting depicting the pictures of animals such as bison, horses, deer, ma mmoths, lions, panthers, bear, owls, etc. have been found in Lascaux and Chauvet (Both in France) and in Altamira (in Spain).
Define the concept of‘Anthropology’.
It is a branch of science which deals with human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology.
Who was Jame Woodbum?
Jame Woodbum was a famous anthropologist. He gave a new insight to Hadza group in 1960.
Where did Hadza group live? Write any two features.
The Hadza group lived around Lake Eyasi.
They were mainly hunters.
They never claimed over land as its resources.
What is Ethnography?
The study of contemporary ethnic groups is called Ethnography. It deals with examination of their modes of livelihood, rituals, customs and traditions.
When did people of different corners of the world begin to learn domestication of plants and animals?
People of different corners of the world began to learn domestication of animals and plants around between 10,000 and 4,500 years ago.
When did last Ice age come to an end? What was its result?
About 13,000 years ago, last Ice age came to an end. As a result of this favourable conditions for growing crops prevailed.
Give reasons to prove why the people living in Hadza did not face food scarcity.
People living in Hadza did not face any food scarcity due to abundance of food items such as tuber, berries, fruits, etc.
What were the dietary habits of Hadza group?
The dietary habits of Hadza group included wild tubes, meat and honey.
List the wild animals hunted and consumed as meat by Hadza groups.
Hadza groups consumed the meat of zebra, giraffe, buffalo, shinoceor and waterduck, baboon, lion, leopard, hare and many more.
Short Answer Type Questions
What do you know about Java men? Why did scientists call them “The Erect Ape Men”?
The remains of Java men were first discovered by a Dutch surgeon in Java. It included-a skull, a thigh bone and two teeth. The study of these remains depicts that the Java was half ape and half man. It is because his head (Java man’s head) was set forward of the neck. The Java men were also called “The Erect Ape Men” by the scientists because they could walk erect.
Who were Hominoids? When did they come into existence? Write their two unique characteristics.
Hominoids were the subgroup of primates.
They came into existence about 24 mya.
They had smaller brain.
They were unable to walk erect.
Name two most important genus of Hominids. How they are different from each other?
Two most important genus of Hominids are, Australopithecus and Homo.
The major differences between them can be identified by the size of their brain, jaws and teeth. It may be summed up as:
Australopithecus have a smaller brain as compared to Homo.
Australopithecus have also larger jaws and teeth as compared to Homo.
When and where do we get earliest evidence of bipedalism? What are the benefits of bipedalism? (HOTS)
We get the earliest evidence of bipedalism from Laetoli Tanzania. They are also obtained from Hadar, Ethiopia. They are as early as dated back to 3.6 mya.
Benefits of Bipedalism
Bipedalism helped early men to see objects from far off distance.
It helped themselves in protecting from animals.
It became easier to distinguish them from others quadalism (Movement of a quadruped).
Walk erect freed his two arms to carry out different tasks.
What do you know about Replacement and Regional Continuity Models?
The Replacement Model supports the view that the modem human beings originated in a single region, i.e. Africa. In support of this view, most of the scholars tried to correlate the anatomical and genetic similarity of modern humans. It indicates that their ancestors belonged to one region and from where they migrated to different parts of the world.
The Regional Continuity Model supports the view that modem humans originated at several regions across Africa, Asia and Europe. To support their view the scholars tried to correlate the anatomical differences of modern humans which indicate that they belonged to different regions.
Write any two features of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis.
Two features of Homo heidelbergensis:
They had a smaller brain.
They had hairy growth on their body.
Two features of Homo neanderthalensis:
They had much larger head,
Their height was short.
Explain the effects of changing environment around 12,000 years ago.
Around 12,000 years ago, there was a change in the climate of the world. There was an increase in the temperature of their environment. It resulted into the development of grasslands in many regions which in turn led to an increase in the number of animals that ate grass like deer, antelope, goat, sheep, cattle, etc.
The tools of earlier humans were made of which materials. Which tools survived the most? Write its uses also.
Earlier humans used tools made of materials such as wood, stone and bones. The tools made of stones survived the most.
Uses of Stone Tools: These tools were used:
To cut meat.
To scrape barks of tree and skins of the animal.
To chop fruit, roots and wood.
Discuss the difficulties faced by early men to get their food.
The early men were food-gatherers not food producers. They faced following difficulties in collecting food:
The danger of wild animals.
Tools to hunt the animals were not good in quality.
To hunt animals, they tend to be alert, quick and had a lot of presence of mind.
They were unable to find which season the fruit ripened.
Where do we get the earliest evidence of planned hunting? What did it depict?
We get the earliest evidence of planned hunting from European site Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic. This site is nearby a river and it is believed that it was deliberately used by people. During the autumn and spring seasons reindeer and horse crossed the river and killed or hunted by early human on a large scale. The selection of such site depicted that the people were well aware about the movement of birds and animals and able to kill (hunt) them in large numbers.
Trace the process of evolution of Homo habilis’s growth.
The fossils of Homo habilis are dated back to 2.2 mya to 1.8 mya. Their fossils have been found from Omo (Ethiopia) and Olduvali Gorge (Tanzania). The size of their brain was bigger and were considered more intelligent than Australopithecus. They were able to use their hands dexterously. They were the first to make tools of stone. Their tools helped a lot during their hunting expedition. Their mutual understanding during hunting expeditions led to the growth of language.
How did the use of language prove advantageous in hunting expedition?
The use of language proved advantageous in hunting expedition in the following ways:
It helped men in organising hunting expeditions.
Now they became aware about the nature of animals and discussed how to hunt those particular animals.
They could collect information about the specific regions where these wild animals resided.
They could share information regarding tools meant-especially for hunting expedition.
How did the use of language prove valuable in the construction of shelters?
The use of language proved helpful in the construction of shelters in following ways:
People could now secure places about their settlement.
They became aware about resources available in near surroundings.
They could discuss the ways of pattern of constructing their shelters.
They could consider the ways and means to protect their shelters from predators and severe storms..
What do you know about cave paintings at Altamira?
Altamira is a cave site in Spain. The paintings on the ceiling of the caves were first brought into notice of an amateur archaeologist Marcelino sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria in November 1879. Maria suddenly noticed the paintings on ceiling when his father was busy in digging the floor of the cave. She brought these paintings to the notice of his father. At first looking of the picture of oxen, he just laughed, but soon he realised that some sort of paste rather than the paint has been used for painting. Two decades later, his findings were dismissed by European archaeologists on the ground that they did not appear too good to be very old.
Long Answer Type Questions
Write a description about the origin of human beings.
The story about the origin of human beings is very long and complicated. Different views in this regard have been given, and still the process of discoveries is going on. The chronological order of the number of events has changed due to new discoveries and excavations made so far. There is plenty of scope left for excavations. The early human passed through several stages of journey to become a modern man. The various stages which throw light on the story of progress made by man from the very beginning to the present days are given below.
Primates: The early human came into being in Africa and Asia about 36-24 mya. They constitute a sub-group of a large group of mammals, such as monkeys, apes, and the humans. They had hair on their bodies and different kinds of teeth.
Hominoids: They came into being about 24 mya. They had four legs and used to move on their four paws. The first portion of their bodies and legs were quite flexible but were unable to walk erect. Their body was different from the monkeys because they were comparatively larger and had no tail.
Hominids: They belonged to hominidae family and came into existence about 5.6 • mya. Their earliest fossils were excavated at Laotoli and Hader (both in Africa). It is a clear evidence that they originated in Africa. Their fossils were also found outside Africa.
What do you know about early man’s tools and weapons made by them? Which techniques were used to make these tools?
Early man’s tools and weapons were made of stones. Early man used hard stones known as flint, along with other types of stones for making tools and weapons. Flint was the stone that was used for lighting fire. It was also found that these types of stones can be given desired shape. However, the tools that early man used were rough and unpolished. We get the earliest evidence for making and use of these stone tools from Ethiopia and Kenya. The Australopithecus were the first to make and use stone tools.
The stone tools were made by using following techniques:
Stone on Stone: In this technique, the pebble from which the tool was to be made was held in one hand and the second stone was used to strike off flakes from the first.
Pressure Flaking: In this technique, the core was placed on a firm surface. The hammer stone was used on a place of bone or stone that was placed on the core to remove flakes that could be shaped into tools.
The Punch Blade Technique: In this technique, the top of a larger pebble is removed by using hammer stone to produce a flat surface. This flat surface, thus so produced, is called striking platform. This is then struck using a hammer and a punch made of bone. It then leads to the production of blades. It also leads to formation of knives.
“Undoubtedly the modern man-made tremendous progress since coming into being.” Justify the statement. (HOTS)
Modern man had several peculiarities which made him different from his predecessors. Modern man is most intelligent in comparison to forefathers on account of the size of his brain. Modern man-made tremendous progress. He began to construct his huts in addition to the caves wherein he dwelled earlier. He started to lead a settled life and began practicing agriculture. Now, he does not wander here and there in search of his food. He acquired knowledge how to cook food and also learnt how to store food grains and consumed it properly. He began to store food grains for his future use or used it when required during the time of natural calamity. He also used much superior tools, which helped him to safeguard himself from the wild predatory more effectively. The invention of needle helped him to wear stitched clothes. The development in the field of art and language made him more superior. So we can conclude that the modern man made great achievements in comparison to his forefathers.
Discuss in detail about the places of residence of early humans.
The early humans lived on the branches of the trees. Between 400,000 and 125,000 years ago, the human beings began to live in caves and open air sites.
We got the earliest evidence of living in caves from Lazaret cave in southern France. It measured 12 x 4 meters and revealed evidence of two hearths, several fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, eggs of animals and fishes.
Dwelling in caves proved beneficial for him, as he could now protect himself from the danger of wild animals. Living in caves provided him natural refuge from severe stream and cold.
The early humans began to live or dwell in huts around 125,000 years ago. It proved a significant step in early human’s journey towards progress.
We get the most significant evidence of the hut constructed by early humans at Terra Amata in Southern France. It was made up of thatch and its roof was made up of wood Reconstruction of hut at Terra Amata stone-flakes scattered on the floor.
Who were the first to use tools? How these tools used by early man were categorized?
Australopithecus were the first to use tools. About 35,000 years ago, we came across the evidence of a remarkable improvement in the method of hunting animals. It became clear from the event that a special type of spear was used to hunt animals.
The tools used by early man can be categorized into three types. They are discussed under following heads:
Hand-axes: They were used for pouncing. In the beginning, they were used without a handle, but later on wooden handle was attached to it. It was made possible to use them with much force.
Chopper: They were made of heavy stones worked to a sharp edge in one direction only, and were most probably used for chopping meat.
Flake implements: They were used as knives and scrapers for finer works. For thousands of years of man’s early history the only remains that we find are crude stone tools. These tools are often found lying along the terraces of rivers, or in the huts or caves where early man used to live and roam in search of wild animals. These tools made by him served many purposes such as skimming of dead animals, cutting their flesh, etc.
About 35,000 years ago new kinds of tools such as spear throwers, bow and arrow came into being.