Chapter 7 – Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Questions and Answers: NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography: (Fundamentals of Human Geography)

Class 12 Geography: (Fundamentals of Human Geography) NCERT book solutions for Chapter 7 - Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Questions and Answers.

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Question 1.(i)
Which one of the following is a tertiary activity?
(a) Farming
(b) Trading
(c) Weaving
(d) Hunting

(b) Trading

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following activities is NOT a secondary sector activity?
(a) Iron Smelting
(b) Catching Fish
(c) Making Garments
(d) Basket Weaving

(b) Catching Fish

Question 1.(iii)
Which one of the following sectors provides most of the employment in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata?
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c) Quaternary
(d) Service

(d) Service

Question 1.(iv)
Jobs that involve high degrees and level of innovations are known as:
(a) Secondary activities
(b) Quaternary activities
(c) Quinary activities
(d) Primary activities

(c) Quinary activities

Question 1.(v)
Which one of the following activities is related to quaternary sector?
(a) Manufacturing computers
(b) Paper and Raw pulp production
(c) University teaching
(d) Printing books

(c) University teaching

Question 1.(vi)
Which one of the following statements is not true?
(a) Outsourcing reduces costs and increases efficiency
(b) At times engineering and manufacturing jobs can also be outsourced
(c) BPOs have better business opportunities as compared to KPOs.
(d) There may be dissatisfaction among job seekers in the countries that outsource the job.

(c) BPOs have better business opportunities as compared to KPOs.

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
Question 2.(i)
Explain retail-trading service.

This is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most of the retail trading take place in fixed establishments or stores solely devoted to selling. It includes small shops, consumer cooperatives, chain stores, departmental stores. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks, door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic vending machines and internet are examples of non-store retail selling.

Question 2.(ii)
Describe quaternary services.

Quaternary activities centre around research, development and may be seen as an advanced form of services involving specialised knowledge, technical skills, and administrative competence. The Quaternary Sector along with the Tertiary Sector has replaced all primary and secondary employment as the basis for economic growth.

Question 2.(iii)
Name the fastest emerging countries of medical tourism in the world.

India, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia are the fastest emerging countries of medical tourism in the world.

Question 2.(iv)
What is digital divide?

Opportunities emerging from the Information and Communication Technology based development is unevenly distributed across the globe. There are wide ranging economic, political and social differences among countries. Digital divide is the difference in opportunities available to people at different places arising because of differential availability of information and communication infrastructure.

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:
Question 3.(i)
Discuss the significance and growth of the service sector in modern economic development.

Services occur at many different levels. Some are geared to industry, some to people; and some to both industry and people, e.g. the transport systems. Low-order services, such as grocery, shops and laundries, are more common and widespread than high-order services or more specialized ones like those of accountants, consultants and physicians. Services are provided to individual consumers who can afford to pay for them. For example the gardener, the launderers and the barber do primarily physical labour. Teacher, lawyers, physicians, musicians and others perform mental labour.
Service sector is well developed in regions where there is high technological and educational know how. There is an increase in international trade of services. Services once generated can be easily availed by many and provide high monetary value in terms of wages, service charges etc. As a country develops, more and more people shift to tertiary activities and the share of tertiary activities in the GDP is even faster. Service sector provides the most lump some amount of foreign exchange and income for the country. Therefore service sector is a major contributor in the modern economic development.

Question 3.(ii)
Explain in detail the significance of transport and communication services.

Transport is a service or facility by which persons, manufactured goods, and property are physically carried from one location to another. It is an organised industry created to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility. Modern society requires speedy and efficient transport systems to assist in the production, distribution and consumption of goods. At every stage in this complex system, the value of the material is significantly enhanced by transportation. Transport activities are essential to carry out trade services. Transportation is also essential for defence purpose. It links different parts of country with each other and with other countries as well, which increases national and global linkage. It also links rural areas with urban areas and helps in ushering development even in rural and backward areas. It makes more places suitable for setting up industries and hence helps, in increasing job opportunities.
Communication services involve the transmission of words and messages, facts and ideas. Human beings have used different methods long-distance communications of which the telegraph and the telephone were important. Even today, the telephone is the most commonly used mode. In developing countries, the use of cell phones, made possible by satellites, is important for rural connectivity. These allow large quantities of data to be transmitted rapidly, securely, and are virtually error-free. With the digitization of information in the 1990’s, telecommunication slowly merged with computers to form integrated networks termed as Internet.
Communication through satellites emerged as a new area in communication technology. These have rendered the unit cost and time of communication invariant in terms of distance. Cyberspace exists everywhere. It may be in an office, sailing boat, flying plane and virtually anywhere. As billions use the Internet each year, cyberspace will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans through e-mail, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance. Internet together with fax, television and radio will be accessible to more and more people cutting across place and time. It is these modern communication systems along with transportation that has made the concept of global village a reality.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define tertiary activity.

Tertiary activities are related to the service sector. Man power is an important component of service sector as most of the tertiary activities are performed by skilled labour, professionally trained experts and consultants. These services require theoretically knowledge and practical training.

Question 2.
What are the types of tertiary activities?

The types of tertiary activites are:
Trade and commerce

Question 3.
Define trade.

Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere. All the services in wholesale and retail trading or commerce sire specifically intended for profit.

Question 4.
What are trading centres?

The towns and cities where buying and selling of goods take place are known as trading centres.

Question 5.
Give examples of rural marketing centres.

Examples of rural marketing centres involve mandis, periodic markets, which may be weekly, biweekly, monthly, annually.

Question 6.
What are periodic markets?

Periodic markets in rural areas are found where there are no regular markets, and local periodic, markets are organized at different time intervals may be weekly, biweekly etc. These markets are held on specified dates and move from one place to another.

Question 7.
What is the typical characteristic of urban marketing centre?

Urban marketing centres have widely specialised urban services providing ordinary goods and services to specialized goods as per the demand.

Question 8.
What is retail service?

Retail trading is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers.

Question 9.
Define consumer cooperative, departmental stores & chain stores.

Consumer cooperatives: A cooperative business which is owned by its consumers for mutual sharing of benefit, after setting aside money for investment, is known as consumer cooperative. Consumer cooperatives often take form of the retail outlets which are owned and managed by their consumers.
Departmental stores: Departmental stores are large retail establishments which have large collection of variety of goods, all organised under specific department heads. A distinct feature of this kind of retail establishment is the organizing of separate departments, under same roof to facilitate buying, customer service, merchandising and control.
Chain Stores: These are retail stores owned by a single firm and spread over vast geographical areas across nation or worldwide. Chain stores are usually characterized by similar service and infrastructural environment, involving similar architecture, store desigfe, layout and choice of products.

Question 10.
What is wholesale trading service?

Wholesale trading constitutes bulk business through numerous intermediary merchants and supply houses and not through retail stores. Wholesalers often extend credit to retail stores to such an extent that the retailer operates very largely on the wholesaler’s capital.

Question 11.
Define transport & communication.

Transport is a service or facility by which people, materials and manufactured goods are physically carried from one location to another. Communication services involve the transmission of words and messages, facts and ideas.

Question 12.
Give examples of informal service sector.

Some examples of informal service sector are those people helping in domestic services, eg. Housekeepers, cooks, gardeners, etc. On such example of informal service is Mumbai’s dabbawalas.

Question 13.
Which is the world’s single largest tertiary activity?

Tourism is the world’s single largest tertiary activity in total registered jobs and total revenue.

Question 14.
Define Quaternary activity.

Quaternary activities are knowledge oriented. They involve the collection, production and dissemination of information. They centre around research, development and may be seen as advanced form of services involving specialized knowledge and technical skill.

Question 15.
Give examples of services from Quaternary sector.

Some examples of services from quaternary sector involves: mutual fund managers, tax consultants, software developers, teachers, hospital and doctor offices, accountants, etc.

Question 16.
Define Quinary activity.

Quinary activities are services that focus on the creation, rearrangement and interpretation of new and existing ideas; data interpretation and the use and evaluation of new technologies. People involved are referred to as gold collar workers.

Question 17.
Name three types of activities included in service sector.

The three types of activities are:
Tertiary activities
Quaternary activities
Quinary activities.

Question 18.
What do you mean by isochrone lines?

Isochrones lines are drawn on map to join places equal in terms of the time taken to reach them.