One of the commonest forms of corruption in India is rule charge. This happens when government servants use their authority in a wrong way in order to issues licenses and permissions. Normally, when such a form of corruption happens the authority vested in the government servant perpetrating the act is misappropriated while the rules are being applied. An example of such corruption would be payments made by business firms in order to get environmental clearances. Quite often ordinary citizens such as us also make such payments so that our house plans are cleared. This is not something done in secret since a lot of people are involved in it any way.
This is the second most prominent kind of corruption as far as India is concerned. This is regarding the purchases done by governmental entities. These can include those huge contracts for arms and ammunition as well as airplanes and such other equipment. At the same time such corruption can also happen in small purchases such as office stationery. Such corruption is also done for food served at various government conferences and meetings. The government functionary who perpetrates such an act accepts some cut from the seller, who has been chosen for the deal.
This is yet another form of corruption that is quite prevalent in India. This normally happens when a government functionary misuses the allocation of resources of the government. This can include critical resources such as land, spectrum, and mines. This game is normally indulged in by people with plenty of power in the governmental circles as well as outside. Normally a high level of secrecy is maintained in such dealings because only a small number of people are involved. It is through practices such as resource rent that social and economic inequality is increasing in India.
In this kind of corruption funds allocated in various social welfare and developmental programmes are misused. As an example of such a form of corruption we can point to the instances where governmental officials and ministers eat up the entire money – or parts of the same – that has been earmarked for some developmental programme at the village such as repairing the school building or a road. In such activities a significant number of supervisors and higher authorities need to be involved in the entire programme. This is done so that they can get the whole job done without much fuss whatsoever.
In this form of crime the government officials and functionaries actually practise different kinds of criminal and illegal activities as well as protect people that partake in such activities in exchange of financial and/or other benefits. As examples, we can point at instances of government officials overlooking acts of encroachment on public land. At times, in certain places, even police officials may ignore, take part, and foster criminal activities for their own benefit. It has often been seen that in various parts of India government officials have transferred the land belonging to one farmer to another one.