From mathematics to science, astronomy to yoga and agriculture to medicine, India has contributed immensely to numerous fields. During the ancient and the medieval period both, inventions and discoveries were part of Indian civilization. Let us have a look at some them:
Popular inventions in India:
- Did you know that ornamental buttons, especially made from seashells are a product of the Indus Valley civilization, which goes back to about 2000 BCE? During that time, buttons were mostly used for ornamental purpose and one such curved seashell button has been found and which is supposed to be 5000 years old.
- As per science historian Joseph Needham,the bow instrument used in the textile industry is a gift of India. The earliest known bow instrument was found in the 2nd century CE.
- Chess originated during the Gupta dynasty. The old Persian name of chess was ‘chatrang’ and the Arabic name was ‘shatranj’.
- Bengali scientist, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose invented a device to measure the growth in plants, known as a Crescograph during the early 20th century.
- High quality steel was first produced in south India.
- The world’s first dock was built at Lothal in 2400 BCE. It was constructed in a manner that there was no or very little deposition of silt. The Harappan civilization was very technical and they had immense knowledge about tides.
- Carbon pigment which is used in ink originated in India.
- Kabaddi originated in India and that too during the prehistoric period.
- During the rule of Akbar, the first prefabricated house and movable structures were invented. Such structures were reported in 1579.
- Tipu Sultan created the first iron-cased and metal-cylinder pockets.
- During 1589 and 1590 CE, the first seamless celestial globe was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri Ibn Luqman.
- Snakes and ladders, a game which is very popular among children was invented in India to teach morality.
- Stupas originated in India in the 3rd century BCE.
- Cashmere wool, cotton cultivation, indigo dye, jute cultivation, and sugar refinement originated in India.
- The number system, zero, law of signs in multiplication, Infinite series for sine, cosine, and arctangent, Pell’s equation are all invented in India.
- In the field of medicine, cataract surgery, the cure for leprosy, plastic surgery and lithiasis treatment were all discovered by Indian scientists.
- Not only this, but India has contributed a lot in the field of science, education, mining and agriculture.