Tripura is one of the northeastern seven sisters state in India. In fact, it is the 3rd smallest state of India and covers an area of 10,494 square km. The state is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, west and south. It is surrounded by the state of Mizoram and Assam in the eastern side. Agartala is the capital of this state. As per the 2011 census, the population of the state is 3,671,032. It constitutes around 0.3% of the total population of the country. The indigenous communities that are known as ST (Scheduled Tribes) in India from 30% of the population in Tripura. The state has 19 tribes, and it is an eco-friendly and pollution-free state.
The languages that are mainly spoken in this state are Kokborok and Bengali. This state was ruled by the Tripuri dynasty for many centuries. It was considered as a princely state at the time of the British rule. In the year 1949, it became a part of independent India. The ethnic strife and conflict between the Bengali population and indigenous people have led to scattered violence and tension since the integration of the state in this country. On the other hand, the institution of an independent tribal administrative organization and various strategies has calmed the situation. National Highway 44 is the only main highway that connects this state with the rest of India.
History of Tripura
In Sanskrit, Tripura means 'three cities'. Paleolithic tools that are made from fossil wood are found in Khowai and Haora valleys. The state is mentioned in all the Indian epics like the Mahabharata, the Puranas, and the Edicts of Ashoka. Kirat Desh is the old name of Tripura. But, it is not clear whether Kirat Desh is coterminous with modern Tripura. The entire region of this state was ruled by Twipra kingdom for many centuries. As years passed by, the boundaries of the kingdom have changed. The state is house to various royal palaces and temples that attract tourists and vacationers across the world. Agartala, the capital city, is a popular sight-seeing location.
Tripura became the princely state at the time of British rule in India. Udaipur that was located in the southern part of this state was the capital of Twipra Kingdom. Bir Chandra Manikya modeled and displayed the administration on the British India pattern. He also enacted reforms that include the formation of the Municipal Corporation of Agartala. After India gained independence in the year 1947, the Tippera district became a part of East Pakistan. The Tripura Merger Agreement was signed by the Maharani Regent in the year 1949. In the year 1956, the state became a union territory. An elected ministry was set up in the year 1963. More...
Climate and Geography
The state of Tripura is one of the smallest states of India after Sikkim and Goa. You can use the national highway in order to reach this place. The highway passes through the Mamit and Karimganj district of Mizoram and Assam respectively. The physiography of the state is characterized by plains, valleys and hill ranges. Tripura has 5 anticlinal hill ranges than run from north to south. They also run through Shakhan, Longtharai, Jmpoui Hills and Athamura in the eastern side and Boromura in the western side. The intervening and prevailing synclines is Agartala-Udaipur, Kamalpur-Ambasa, Khowai-Teliamura, Dharmanagar-Kanchanpur and Kailasahar-Many valleys. The highest point of the state is Betling Shib that is located in Jampui range. The altitude of Betling Shib is 3,081 feet or 939 meters.
The isolated hillocks that are scattered throughout this state are called tillas. On the other hand, the narrow alluvial valleys that are located in the western side are known as lungas. There are various rivers that originate from the hillocks and flow in Bangladesh. The Dhalai, Khowai, Juri, Longai and Manu flow to the northern side, Feni and Muhuri in the south-west side and the Gumti in the western side. The winter season is from December to February, monsoon season from May to September, summer or pre-monsoon season from March to April, post-monsoon season from October to November. At the time of the monsoon season, the state witnesses frequent floods due to heavy rains. More...
If you want to visit this state, then you can explore the various mesmerizing places that are located in this state. The state has many natural charms. The sightseeing tour of this state will provide a delightful and charming experience for a tourist. There are various architectural wonders in this state like Kunjaban and Neermahal Palace. It is considered as the ideal tourist spot in the northeast part of India. You can also visit the holy places, such as Kamalasagar Kali and Bhuvaneswari temple. Many pilgrims and tourists visit Tripura in order to see the famous temples of this region.
There are various wildlife attractions in Tripura. The wildlife lovers will certainly want to come to this state for visiting the various wildlife destinations. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary is home to elephants, barking deer and bison. Sepahijala Sanctuary offers shelter to the migratory birds. Trishna and Rowa Wildlife sanctuary are also famous and renowned for wildlife species. The attraction spots of Tripura also cover a number of astounding royal places, such as Neermahal Palace. It is a famous palace that was built by incorporating the styles of Muslim and Hindu. Ujjayanta Palace is another well-known tourist spot in Agartala, Tripura. Kunjaban Palace is also a famous destination for sightseeing. More...
Government and Politics
The state of Tripura is ruled by a democratic parliamentary system. The residents of this state are granted universal suffrage. The government of Tripura has 3 branches: judiciary, legislature and executive. The Legislative Assembly of Tripura consists of office bearers and elected members that are chosen by various members. The Speaker controls the assembly meetings and conferences. In the absence of the Speaker, a Deputy Speaker conducts the meetings. The members of the Legislative Assembly are elected for a period of 5 years. The judiciary or magistrate is selected by the High Court of Tripura. In addition, the Indian President appoints the governor of this state and the Governor appoints the Chief Minister. The Governor appoints the committee of ministers after getting the advice and recommendations of the Chief Minister.
Tripura sends one and two representatives to Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha respectively. The local body elects panchayats for different villages in this state. The two political parties of this state are INC (Indian National Congress) and the Left Front. This state was ruled by INC until the year 1977. On the other hand, the Left Front ruled the state from 1978 till 1988. They started to rule the state from again 1993 onwards. The previous election was won by the Left Front that was held in the month of February 2013. More...
The schools in this state are controlled by private organizations and the state government that includes religious institutions. The medium of instruction in most of the schools is done mainly in Bengali or English. On the other hand, various regional languages are also used like Kokborok. The schools in this state are mainly affiliated to CBSE, NIOS, TBSE and CISCE. If a student completes the secondary education, then he/she normally enrolls in higher secondary school or junior college for 2 years. The schools and colleges are affiliated to central boards or the Secondary Education Board of Tripura. A lot of students mainly select the 3 streams that include science, commerce and liberal arts.
When students pass the H.S (Higher Secondary) exam, then he/she will enroll the degree programs in science, commerce or arts. A student may also enroll in the professional degree course like medicine, law or engineering. According to an economic review, there are 4,455 schools and 2,298 primary schools in Tripura. Number of students that enroll in the schools of Tripura are 767.672. There is 1 private university and 1 central university in Tripura. In addition, there are fifteen general colleges, 2 engineering colleges, 2 medical colleges, 1 law college, 1 art college, 1 music college and 3 polytechnic colleges. The schools use new educational techniques and tools to provide modern education.
Economic Scenario of Tripura
The state GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of Tripura was US$ 2.2 billion (Rs. 12,947 crore) for the financial year 2010-11 recording a growth rate of 5.71% over the last fiscal year. During the similar period, the GDP value of the country was US$ 840 billion (Rs. 4,877,842 crore). The rate of growth is 8.55%. The per capita income of Tripura at the current price was US$ 660 (Rs. 38,493). In the year 2009, tertiary sector contributed the most in terms of GDP of this state. It contributed 53.98% of the economy of this state in comparison to 23.07% that is contributed by the primary sector. The primary sector consists of mining, forestry and agriculture.
Secondary sector that includes manufacturing and industrial sector contributed 22.95% to the GDP of this state. As per the Economic Census that was conducted in 2005, maximum workers were involved in the retail sector after agriculture. It was followed by the manufacturing sector, public administration and education. In this state, a lot of people are dependent on allied activities and agriculture. Due to the forest cover and hilly terrain, only 27% of land is vacant for the cultivation. The main crop of this state is rice. The other crops that are cultivated in this state are jute, pulses, Mesta, sugarcane and potato. The main horticultural products are pineapple and jackfruit. More...
Demographic Changes of Tripura
In terms of the population in the north eastern part of India, Tripura holds the second spot after Assam. As per the census that was conducted in the year 2011, the total population of the state is 3,671,032. The male and female population of the state is 1,871,867 and 1,799,165. The state constitutes 0.3% of the total population of India. The male to female ratio of this state is 1000:961 that is higher as compared to the national sex ratio of 1000:940. The population density of the state is 350 persons/square km. In the year 2011, the rate of literacy was 87.75% that is higher as compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%.
According to the 2001 census, Bengalis represented around 69% of the population of the state. On the other hand, the native population of the state is 31%. The state has nineteen ethnic groups, as well as sub-groups with different cultures and languages. In the year 2001, the largest group was Tripuris that speaks Kokborok. The other groups that are present in this state, along with their population are Reang (16.6% of the native population), Chakma (6.5%), Jamatia (7.5%), Mog (3.1%), Halam (4.8%), Kuki (1.2%), Munda (1.2%) and Garo (1.1 %). The language that is mostly spoken is Bengali due to a high percentage of the Bengali population in this state. Kokborok is the language that is prominent among the tribal population.
Art and Culture of Tripura
The diverse groups of this state have led to a multiple and composite culture. The various ethnic groups of the state are Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Reang, Jamatia, Koloi, Noatia, Chakma, Murasing, Garo, Halam, Mizo, Kuki, Munda, Mogh, Santhal, Uchoi and Oraon. The Bengali population constitutes the largest community of this state. Due to this reason, Bengali culture is considered as the main non-indigenous culture. A lot of tribal families that live in the towns have embraced the Bengali language and culture. Tripuri kings are considered as the greatest patrons and supporters of Bengali culture, particularly literature. The language of Bengali was also the court language. Bengali cuisine, music and literature are widespread, mainly in urban areas. Tripura is famous for cane handicrafts and bamboo. Cane, wood and bamboo, are mainly utilized for making a wide range of utensils, furniture, fans, mats, replicas, baskets, materials for interior decoration and idols. Dance and music are an integral part of the culture in this state. The various local instruments that are quite popular are sumui (a kind of flute), chongpreng and sarinda (string instruments). The indigenous communities have their own collection of dances and songs that are performed at the time of religious occasions, weddings and other events. The 'Goria dance' was performed by Jamatia and Tripuri people at the time of Goria Puja. Some of the dance forms of Tripura are jhum dance, mamita dance, lebang dance, mosak sulmani dance etc. More...
The main languages that are widely spoken in this northeastern state are Kokborok and Bengali. In addition, various minority languages are also spoken in this state. English is also used for official purpose. The widely spoken language is Bengali as the state has a large number of Bengali population. On the other hand, the language of Kokborok is quite prominent among the tribal population. Sabrum and Chakra are the main Bengali languages that are spoken by the tribal population. A number of individuals also speak Rankhal and Halam. It is a language that originates from the Halam language.
National Highway (NH) 44 is the only main road that connects this state of the rest of the country. It starts at Sabroom located in the southern part of Tripura. It then heads to the northern side of Agartala, the capital city of Tripura. After that, it turns east, northeast and enters Assam. The highway is also called the 'Assam Road', and it is considered as the lifeline of the state. The road quality of the highway is quite poor. Manu is a town in the district of south Tripura that is connected by another highway NH 44A with Aizawl, the capital city of Mizoram.
Agartala is well connected by air. The airport is located in the capital city, Agartala that connects it with other Indian cities. In addition, there are also connecting flights to Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Guwahati, Aizawl, Silchar, Delhi, Imphal and Kolkata. The airport in Agartala is the 2nd busiest airport after Guwahati airport in the north east. Tripura has the international border of 856 km with Bangladesh. There is also a bus service between Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, and Agartala.
Last Updated on : 15/07/2013