India has been suffering from the second wave of the novel coronavirus. Numerous people lost lives due to the absence of oxygen supply in various states, especially Delhi-NCR, that saw hospitals sending out SOS calls on social media to help them in the oxygen crisis. People collaborated and showed humanity by providing relief work in tough times. Amidst all this, the government introduced a third vaccination phase for the age group 18-44. As India sent its manufactured vaccines to 94 countries, many vaccination centres were closed due to the shortage. To meet the demand and increase the process, after Covishield and Covaxin in circulation, India has some more COVID vaccines in the queue in 2021.
A look at eight COVID vaccines for India in 2021
- COVAXIN: Indian pharmaceutical firm, Bharat Biotech, has been putting vaccines in a limited way but the rapid supply of Covaxin. The ingenious vaccine, earlier criticised for getting emergency nod without phase 3 data, has now been given consent by international researchers for its efficacy and variant cover. According to studies, Covaxin is 81% effective against the virus and has the strength to neutralise UK, Indian and Brazilian variants. Its efficacy against the South African virus is also under study as of now. Efficacy means the degree of protection that a vaccine provides against a disease after successful vaccination.
- COVISHIELD: The Serum Institute of India manufactures Covishield, and its version of the vaccine developed by AstraZeneca in association with the University of Oxford, is being most popularly used in India’s immunisation drive. According to studies, the vaccine has an efficacy of about 90% if both doses are administered over 2-3 months.
- SPUTNIK-V: Russia’s Gamaleya Institute has developed Sputnik V and is the third coronavirus vaccine to be given nod for use in India after Covishield and Covaxin. While the first batch of 1.5 lakh doses has reached India from Russia, the second batch should come next week. After the primary import step, under the monitoring of Dr Reddy’s Laboratories, they will manufacture the vaccine at five labs in India. It is to be administered in two doses and has an efficacy of 91.6% in preventing people from developing Covid-19. The recommended gap between two doses of Sputnik V is 21 days. As per the drug firm, the soft launch of the Covid vaccine Sputnik V has begun, and the first dose of the vaccine was inoculated in Hyderabad.
- NOVAVAX: The Serum Institute of India will be manufacturing US-based pharmaceutical firm Novavax’s Covid-19 vaccine and will be sold as COVOVAX. The vaccine candidate is yet to receive a nod in the US, UK or India. It has exhibited an efficacy of 96.4% against mild to severe disease caused by the original strain of SARS-CoV-2.
- Nasal vaccine: Bharat Biotech’s Nasal vaccine is an intranasal vaccine, named BBV154, which develops an immune response at the site of infection (in the nasal mucosa) vital for preventing both infections and spread of Covid-19. The pharma company states that the vaccine will have fewer side effects as it does not require a needle for vaccination.
- BIO E SUBUNIT VACCINE: A Hyderabad-based pharmaceutical company, Biological E Limited’s Covid-19 subunit vaccine candidate, is anticipated to be introduced in India from August, subject to approval post phase 3 trial outcomes. The vaccine candidate has accomplished phase 1 and 2 trials and has been directed for phase 3 trials on 1,268 healthy subjects in the age range of 18 to 80 years.
- ZYDUS CADILA DNA VACCINE: Ahmedabad-based pharmaceutical firm Zydus Cadila develops this vaccine. Zyvox-D Covid-19 vaccine is likely to be on the market in June. The company expects to submit the data of phase 3 of the clinical trial, which is underway as of now on 28,000 adult and adolescent volunteers, to the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) by May end and further begin production and supply by June.
- GENOVA mRNA VACCINE: India’s first mRNA vaccine candidate, developed by Pune-based Genova Biopharmaceuticals, will undergo human trials. Even as the company had received a nod for human trials from the DCGI in December, the trials are yet to start as the regulator requested the firm to redo an animal toxicity study conducted in the US.
According to the NITI Aayog member VK Paul, “Over two billion doses will be made in the country in five months [August to December] for India and for the people of India. Vaccines will be available for all as we move forward.“