The world is facing numerous problems. Apart from the rising danger of global warming, a major issue of concern is the shortage of water. With the growing population and over-consumption of resources, the scarcity of water has been emerging as a major problem in today’s time. India is also amongst those nations which are likely to face the shortage of water in the upcoming years. As per reports, India now uses more groundwater than China and United States combined.
To highlight this issue of shortage of water the United Nations Organization every year celebrates March 22 as “World Water Day”. A theme is also chosen every year in order to get the attention of people towards the importance of water and various other water-related issues. The theme for World Water Day 2020 is “Water and Climate Change”. The UN has chosen this theme to eradicate discrimination of all kinds and make efforts towards including people who have been marginalized or ignored as water is a basic human right entitled to everyone.
Reasons for the scarcity of water in India:
- India is facing water crisis due to the reckless overuse of water.
- The problem is not the adequate quantity but the mismanagement.
- Water Pollution is also creating water scarcity and inviting a bigger threat to the future and present generations.
- More and more people are flocking towards the big cities which is affecting the balance of resources. Factors like population explosion are also contributing to the scarcity of water generated.
- Surface water is immensely polluted and cannot be consumed.
- Groundwater is being progressively contaminated by unknown pollutants increasing health risks.
- The levels of groundwater are also declining in many parts due to over-consumption.
- Lack of proper wastewater-treatment is another reason for the scarcity.
Impact of water shortage in India:
- Water shortage is emerging as a major problem in today’s time. Acute water shortage is prevailing in the forest areas of Tamil Nadu. The districts of Madurai and Dindigul are immensely affected. Harm to wildlife can also be witnessed. The Indian gaurs, which are found in the forest region of these districts, come in search of water and are killed as they fall in wells. Other animals in the area are also getting affected due to the shortage of water. The condition is getting worse due to degradation of soil and vegetation.
- In Palve Budruk, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, the villagers, UNICEF and the government is trying hard to conserve water. Percolation tanks, check dams, and canal bunds are being built to avoid conditions similar to droughts.
- Bangalore is also facing the scarcity of water. More than 90% of lakes in Bangalore are polluted. There is a lake which is named as the frothing lake by the locals because it is so mixed up with chemical effulgent that it is foaming all the time and sometimes even catches fire. Since Bangalore is suffering from water scarcity, water mafia here pumps out the water from lakes unauthorisedly and sell the water to the city dwellers.
- The water bodies of Delhi are also extremely polluted. The water of Yamuna is horribly black due to effluents released into it. The city often faces the water crisis.
Solutions which can be adopted:
- To improve human health and livelihood we need to plant more trees.
- Restoration of wetlands is to be done to re-balance the water cycle.
- Reconnection of rivers to floodplains.
- Create awareness about factors like population explosion, pollution, and mismanagement etc.
- Conservation of water is the most important step to be taken.
Ways to conserve water:
- Initiatives by community and government are to be taken for construction of check dams, percolation pit, and canal bunds.
- Farm ponds should be created.
- Rainwater harvesting should be practiced
- Consumption of water should be done in a sustainable way
- Re-use the water for other purposes like after washing vegetables use it to water the plants.
- Turn the tap off after use.
Cape Town, a port city in Africa, will run out of water by the end of April. It has started practicing “Day Zero” when the people use a very little amount of water to fulfill the basic needs. According to the Asian Development Bank, India will have a water deficit of 50 percent. By the year 2030. Bangalore in India is also going to run out of water soon.So, take a pledge to start conserving water this world water day.