Arunachal Pradesh Geography


Arunachal Pradesh geography states that the state is primarily a hilly tract nestled in the foothills of Himalayas. Previously, Arunachal Pradesh had been a part of the North Eastern Frontier Agency; but today, Arunachal Pradesh is a deemed state of the Indian Union.

A snapshot of Arunachal Pradesh geography is as follows:

  • Latitude - 26°28' North and 29°30' North.
  • Longitude - 91°30' East and 96°30' East.
  • Area - 83,573 square kilometers.
  • Capital - Itanagar.
  • Districts - 15.
  • Towns - 12.
  • Villages - 3862.
  • Boundaries - Assam, Nagaland, Bhutan, Tibet, China and Myanar.
  • Rivers - Brahmaputra, Kameng, Siang, Lohit, Subansiri, Tirap, etc.
  • Population - 1,097968 (according to 2001 census).
  • Literacy rate - 44.24%

Geography of Arunachal Pradesh proves that Arunachal Pradesh is a thinly populated state, posited in the foothills of the Himalayas. In Arunachal Pradesh, geography states that the region is divided into six natural regions. The Western parts of Kameng District and Tirap District form the first two regions of the topography of Arunachal Pradesh.

The other three distinct topographical regions of the geography at Arunachal Pradesh constitute the upper, middle and the lower belts of the state; concentrated pockets of the Arunachal Pradesh foothills form the sixth region of the topography of Arunachal Pradesh.

Further, it can be said that the topography of Arunachal Pradesh is characterized by mountainous ranges and sub-mountainous terrains along the northern parts: abrasion by the mighty rivers that flows through the mountains have created broad valley, which is a major feature of the geography in Arunachal Pradesh.

Climate

Climate in Arunachal Pradesh shows different feature owing to the difference in the topography and altitude of the land. The climate in Arunachal Pradesh ranges from sub-tropical to temperate depending on the altitude of the land.

Talking about climate of Arunachal Pradesh, it can be said that the regions in the lower belts of Arunachal Pradesh experiences hot and humid climate. The maximum temperature that marks the climate of the foothills in Arunachal Pradesh is 40° C (during summer). The average temperature in this region in winter ranges from 15° to 21° C. During the monsoon, the temperature in this region is between 22° to 30° C.

The areas around the middle belt of Arunachal Pradesh are cooler. The middle belt in Arunachal Pradesh experiences micro thermal climate.

Moreover, Arunachal Pradesh possesses alpine climate in the higher altitudes of the state. The higher regions of Arunachal Pradesh witnesses snowfall during the winter. The snowfall and the alpine climate of Arunachal Pradesh largely draws tourists from the different parts of the world to tour within the territory of Arunachal Pradesh.

Another distinct feature of the climate at Arunachal Pradesh is rainfall. In fact, Arunachal Pradesh experiences a heavy rainfall during May to September. The average rainfall recorded in Arunachal Pradesh is 300 centimeters. The rainfall in Arunachal Pradesh varies between 450 centimeters to 80 centimeters.

Area

Arunachal Pradesh is said to possess the largest area among the states in the North Eastern part of India. Arunachal Pradesh area holds the Shivalik ranges, along with a number of rivers and streams flowing through this region.

Arunachal Pradesh, which is also known as the 'Land of Dawn-Lit Mountainous', is encompassed by the Shivalik ranges. The lofty slopes, turbulent streams, snow-clad peaks, sparkling rivers, etc.- all form an indelible part of the area in Arunachal Pradesh.

The area in Arunachal Pradesh is divided into fifteen districts, namely:

  • Changlang
  • Dibang Valley
  • East Kameng
  • East Siang
  • Kurung Kumey
  • Lohit
  • Lower Dibang Valley
  • Lower Subansiri
  • Papumpare
  • Tirap
  • Twang
  • Upper Siang
  • Upper Subansiri
  • West Kameng
  • West Siang

The area of Arunachal Pradesh holds about 1630 kilometers of the international boundary. The state shares about 1030 kilometers of the international boundary with China, 440 kilometers with Myanmar and about 160 kilometers of the boundary with Bhutan.

A snapshot at the area at Arunachal Pradesh can be as follows:

  • Area - 83743 square kilometers.
  • Latitude - 26°28' North and 29°30' North.
  • Longitude - 91°30' East and 96°30' East.
  • Boundaries - Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Assam, Nagaland and Tibet.

Besides, a number of rivers also falls under the area of Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the major river draining the area are:

  • Dibang
  • Kamla
  • Kameng
  • Kamplang
  • Lohit
  • Noa-Dihing
  • Siang
  • Siyum
  • Subansiri
  • Tirap, etc.

However, it can be said that the Arunachal Pradesh area encompasses the entire range of magnanimous nature: it comprises of the broad valleys, the lofty mountains, sparkling rivers, and all and paraphernalia housed in the territory.

Forests

The forests in Arunachal Pradesh contains a wide range of flora and fauna. Arunachal Pradesh is blessed with a rich biodiversity; therefore, the forest of Arunachal Pradesh contains a phenomenal range of plants and animals.

To begin with, it can be said that the forest in Arunachal Pradesh houses a large number of people belonging to the different tribes of the land. These tribal people, who are aloof from urbanization, dwell in the forests of Arunachal Pradesh amid the biodiversity of the land. In fact, the forest and forest-based products seems to be a part of the livelihood of the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh.

Further, nature has endowed the state of Arunachal Pradesh with an amazing range of plants and wildlife. In fact, the forest at Arunachal Pradesh is known for housing about 5000 plants, 500 birds, 85 terrestrial mammals and a wide number of insects, butterflies and reptiles.

In Arunachal Pradesh, forest or the vegetation is divided into some broad climatic categories. Among the broad climatic categories of Arunachal Pradesh are:

  • Tropical forests
  • Sub-tropical forests
  • Temperate forests
  • Pine forests
  • Alpine forests, etc.
Furthermore, in Arunachal Pradesh, we also come across some other types of forests, viz.:

  • Degraded forests
  • Bamboo forests
  • Grasslands, etc.
Among the important animals found in the forests of Arunachal Pradesh are:

  • Tiger
  • Leopard
  • Golden cat
  • Rhesus macaque
  • Pig-tailed macaque
  • Rodents
  • Linsang
  • White winged wood duck
  • Tragopan
  • Mishmi wren, etc.


Topography

The topography in Arunachal Pradesh is characterized by an undulating hilly terrain. Nestled amid the foothills of the Shivalik ranges, the topography of Arunachal Pradesh is marked by lofty hill slopes, enchanting river valleys and majestic peaks. Arunachal Pradesh shows a wide variation in the topography of the land. The topography at Arunachal Pradesh is characterized by a sparsely populated mountainous area in the extreme north-eastern part of the state. Topography of the eastern Himalayas in Arunachal Pradesh celebrates snow-capped mountains.

In Arunachal Pradesh, topography is marked by mountain ranges and submontane in the northern parts of the territory. Abrasion and attrition by the mighty rivers, flowing through the topography in Arunachal Pradesh, have led to the creation of wide valleys in the northern regions. Moreover, according to the distribution of population, the topography of Arunachal Pradesh is divided into six natural regions. The first two regions falling under the topography of Arunachal Pradesh are the western parts of Kameng District and Tirap District. The upper, middle and the lower belts of the state constitute the other three regions of Arunachal Pradesh. The sixth region is formed by the concentrated pockets in the foothills of Arunachal Pradesh.

Therefore, it can be said that the Arunachal Pradesh topography shows a distinct pattern. Nestled in the high mountains Arunachal Pradesh is characterized by a hilly terrain interspersed with rivers and valleys.

Biodiversity

Biodiversity in Arunachal Pradesh is owing to the location of the land amid the foothills of the Himalayas. In terms of biodiversity at Arunachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh is the richest state in the Himalayan zone.

Arunachal Pradesh is situated in the Eastern Himalayan province, and is known for a temperate kind of climate which facilitates the growth of a number of plants and trees in the territory. Besides, Arunachal Pradesh is also known for receiving the highest amount of rainfall in the North Eastern India, after Meghalaya. Therefore, Arunachal Pradesh had a rich store of flora and fauna constituting the biodiversity of Arunachal Pradesh.

The biodiversity at Arunachal Pradesh is marked with a number of luxuriant forest. In fact, Arunachal Pradesh is known for housing a myriad of plants and trees within the territory. In this context, it can be said that the forest of Arunachal Pradesh is divided into some broad categories according to the climatic conditions found in the different parts of the territory. Among the different types of forests that form an integral part of the biodiversity in Arunachal Pradesh are:

  • Alpine forests
  • Bamboo forests
  • Degraded forests
  • Pine forests
  • Sub-tropical forests
  • Temperate forests
  • Tropical forests, etc.

Posited in the lap of the lower Himalayas, the biodiversity of Arunachal Pradesh offers a mesmerizing range of plants and animals. Some of the important plants that comprise the Arunachal Pradesh biodiversity are:

  • Orchids
  • Ferns
  • Medicinal plants
  • Bamboos
  • Canes
  • Parasites
  • Saprophytes
  • Rhododendrons
  • Oaks
  • Hedychiums, etc.

Some of the important animals that also comprise the biodiversity of Arunachal Pradesh are:

  • Elephant
  • Golden cat
  • Rhesus macaque
  • Tiger
  • Rodents
  • White winged wood duck
  • Linsang
  • Tragopan
  • Leopard
  • Mishmi wren
  • Pig-tailed macaque
  • Gaur
  • Wild buffalo
  • Marbled cat
  • Slow loris
  • Serow, etc.

Thus, as we can see, Arunachal Pradesh is blessed with a rich landscape that houses a variety of animals and plants within the territory.

Last Updated on 09 March 2013