Home   »   History   »   Facts about the Indus Valley Civilization

Facts about the Indus Valley Civilization

Published on: April 19, 2013 | Updated on: August 5, 2014

The Indus Valley Civilization (the Harappan Civilization or the Indus Civilization or the Indus River Valley Civilization) is one of the earliest civilizations in the world. The civilization flourished around the Indus River basin and its tributaries consisting of present day Pakistan and northwest India. In India the largest Harappan site is located in Haryana Rakhigarhi, and the second largest is in Dholavira, Gujarat. Construction of well-planned cities by using bricks, and proper drainage system are the main features of this civilization. At the time of its height, the Indus Valley Civilization geographically extended to Egypt or Mesopotamia. On the basis of archaeological research and radio carbon dating, origin of the Indus Valley Civilization lies between 3300 – 1300 BCE. Though people used to live on the banks of the Indus River before this period but it was only during a Bronze Age when they actually started living as civilized and urban societies. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the two prominent cities of Indus Valley Civilization.

Facts about Indus Valley Civilization
Mohenjo-daro is the largest site and Allahdino is the smallest site of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The Indus Valley Civilization had a total population of over five million. Most of its people were artisans and traders. Merchants were very wealthy and given extra political powers.

Towns were laid down in a rectangular pattern. Most of the houses were two-storey and very spacious. Town planning is a unique feature of the Indus Valley Civilization. There were well built granaries, citadels, burial grounds and bathing platforms.

The towns used to have great baths. Though the exact purpose of baths is not clear but it is believed that these might be used for religious bathing.

Brick lined sewers is another very prominent feature of the Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjo-daro is the most prominent of all cities of the civilization with respect to sewerage system. Bricks used in construction were built in the ratio of 4:2:1 having 11 inches length, 5.5 inches width and 2.75 inches depth.

Length, mass and time was accurately measured by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. Also the system of uniform weights and measures were developed by them.

People were familiar with certain new techniques in metallurgy. They used these techniques to produce lead, copper, tin and bronze.

Art was in its full form during the Indus Valley Civilization. At the time of excavation many bronze, copper and pottery products along with terra-cotta toys have been excavated. Steatite seals engraved with animal figures is however the most notable among all these. The most common of all animals that was used on seals was Humpless bull or unicorn.

There are three stages of Harappan Civilization which are Pre-Harappan, Harappan and Post-Harappan known as Rojde, Desalpur and Surkotada respectively

Lothal, Balakot, Suktagendor and Allahdin (Pakistan) are the cities in Harappan civilization that were the major ports of that time.

Engineering skills were at its heights and it is clear from the construction of docks especially at Lothal.

Wheels used in Haprappa were axeless.

Roads especially in Mohenjo-daro were as wide as 10.5 mt. Harappa also had wider roads having width of 30 foot.

Similarities between the Indus Valley Civilization and the Egyptian River Valley Civilization have been noticed by the scholars. First of all both the civilizations were dependent upon river system and flourished around the Indus and the Nile rivers respectively. It has also been found out that both of these civilizations had almost similar lifestyle and customs.

Limestone and steatite were the most common materials used to make stone sculpture in Harappa.

Information about rituals and beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization is limited at present. But according to studies it is clear that people living in this civilization used to worship deities especially fertility deities. Religious activities were performed by priests. Ritualistic baths were part of Harappan Civilization. On some of the seals there are pictures of people doing meditation and sitting in a crossed legged posture.

Also there is very less information about the language used in the Indus Valley Civilization but some scholars believe its closeness to Vedic scripts.

Reason of Indus Valley Civilization decline
Major reason given by scholars regarding the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization was a shift in the course of river and natural disasters such as drought, flood etc. Also there was decline in the trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of the scholars also believe that wars with the Aryan Civilization may also be the reason of their decline.

Related information:

Indus Valley Civilization Map

Who were Dravidians in India?

Reasons for the Decline of the Harappan Civilization

The Myth of the Aryan

The Gupta Period

Neolithic period 


I am a mother. A wife. And daughter of my loving parents by heart with passion for creativity, zeal to achieve something big in life but want to live life to its fullest.


Showing 17 Comments :

Did anybody know that buy Kali bangan is given this name?


Sanskrit obviously came from outside of India. Yet some or most people believe otherwise. Several things destroy the indigenous theory of the Aryans, one is the horse, the language and horse sacrifice, the chariot and the religion.


thanks its intersting


Its gg bro 420 quickscope


Literally the entire comment section is full of illiterate people. If you want to seem like you know at least a little English, please use proper grammar and spelling. Capitals, periods and commas exist for a reason, people.

Anyways, thanks for the info 🙂


Not helpful at all as in just one sentence u mention more information is unavailable. That information which is intentional being obscured is radiation poisoning of the area does not allow animals let alone plants to flourish. It is a dead zone. Which even puts radio carbon dating back by 1000 of years due to contamination.
Second u intentionally mention coming of Aryans where nowhere in history is there any proof of Aryan invasion. There is proof of Aryans going out from India.
Thirdly the Indus valley script has been under study and deciphering mode for last 25 Yrs. So why no excerpts have been made public? Instead junk abt Egyptian mummies etc is exciting for the voyeurs?
Fourth is the fact that since vedic beliefs indicate cremation how is it not a single buried body as a funeral ritual can be found?


It helped me to finish my project and it is also very intresting

leighton preecher April 15, 2015 at 1:26 pm

it was a crucshing page our international history documents have been easily complete with the help of this enthusiastic globannatronic page.

mamawa t massaquoi September 18, 2014 at 3:48 am

Thanks.it helped me too do.my homework perfectly


Hey,Ramandeep… This article helped me a lot. Thanks! I couldn’t have aced my history test without it! It would be great if you could tell me the sources of the article.


good and helpful….


this helped for my report on the indus river civilization i hope when finish collage to be a great writer and have my own website like this one thank you

praveen jalaraddi December 7, 2013 at 9:50 pm

Hi this is ppraveen here. am very much interested in such matters so please do update me

EU GDPR Update:
MapsofIndia has updated its Terms and Privacy Policy to give Users more transparency into the data this Website collects, how it is processed and the controls Users have on their personal data. Users are requested to review the revised Privacy Policy before using the website services, as any further use of the website will be considered as User's consent to MapsofIndia Privacy Policy and Terms.
We follow editorialcalls.org for border and boundary demarcations