Top ten facts on Geography of India



What is the geographical location of India?



The country of India is geographically located towards the north equatorial region in between the north latitude of 8° 4' and 37° 6' and east longitude of 68° 7' and 97° 25'. The country lies towards the south of the continent of Asia.

Which are the bordering countries of India?



Being a peninsular country, India is bordered mostly by water bodies of Arabian Sea towards its southwest, Bay of Bengal towards its southeast and Indian Ocean towards its south. However, the countries bordering the nation towards its north are Bhutan, China and Nepal, towards its east are Burma and Bangladesh, and towards west is Pakistan.

How does the geography of India look like?



The peninsular country of India is rich in its varied geographical features. Indian geography has been made beautiful by its running rivers, serene lakes, beautiful waterfalls, strong mountains, vast coastal plains, sprinkled islands and surrounding oceans. The country is famously known as “land of rivers” for possessing numerous rivers. Apart from these rivers flowing through the different parts of the nation, India has got mountain ranges towards its north to the central plateau region. The western and eastern coastal regions of the nation are surrounded by plain lands.

Which is the highest point of India?



Kanchenjunga, situated at an altitude of 8, 598 m above the sea level is the highest point of India.

Which is the lowest point of India?



Kuttanad, in the state of Kerala, which is located at −2.2 m below the sea level, is the lowest point of the nation.

What constitutes the river system of India?



India, the land of rivers comprises of a network of some main rivers and their innumerable tributaries and distributaries. The main rivers of the country are as follows:
  • Ganga
  • Brahmaputra
  • Chenab
  • Beas
  • Ravi
  • Jhelum
  • Sutlej or Satluj
  • Narmada
  • Tapi or Tapti
  • Krishna
  • Godavari
  • Kaveri
  • Mahanadi
These rivers can be divided into two major river systems in India, which are mentioned below:
  • The Himalayan River System
  • The Peninsular River System
The river system of Himalaya can be further sub-divided into the following three river systems found mainly towards north India:
  • Ganga River System: This river system consists of river Ganga and its branches.

  • Indus River System: The river system of Indus comprises of the network of the north Indian rivers of Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Jhelum and Satluj or Sutlej.

  • Brahmaputra River System: The river system of Brahmaputra includes mainly the river Brahmaputra along with its tributaries.

The Peninsular River System of India has got rivers like Godavari, Kaveri, Krishna, Mahanadi, Narmada, Tapti or Tapi, which originates and flows along with their branches across the peninsular part of the country.

All these rivers originate from the following three main sources:
  • The Himalayan ranges or the Karakoram ranges of north India
  • Sahyadri ranges or the Western Ghats of west India
  • Chotanagpur plateau, Satpura ranges and Vindhya ranges of central India
Originating from the three watersheds mentioned earlier and running across the country of India, these rivers along with their tributaries and distributaries flows to either the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea. Some of the rivers even flow towards the inner part of the country. Let us have a look at the division of some of the main rivers of India according to their flowing basins:

Rivers, which have their flowing basin in Bay of Bengal: Some of the longest rivers of India flowing towards the Bay of Bengal are:
  • Brahmaputra
  • Ganga
  • Godavari
  • Kaveri
  • Krishna
  • Mahanadi
  • Meghna
Rivers, whose flowing basin is Arabian Sea: To name a few of the Indian rivers, which find their destination into the Arabian Sea are:
  • Narmada
  • Indus
  • Tapti
Rivers of India flowing within the country's inner part: Some of the rivers of India that flows towards the central part of the country are as follows:
  • Musi
  • Ghaggar
  • Samir
Besides these rivers of India, there are many other important rivers, which contribute to the beauty of this land of rivers. The names of a few of those beautiful Indian rivers are mentioned below:
  • Bhadra
  • Gandak
  • Mahananda
  • Jaldhaka
  • Ramganga
  • Rupnarayan
  • Yamuna
  • Wainganga

Which is the longest river of India?



Brahmaputra River, flowing over an area of 2, 900 km is the country's longest river.

How much rainfall is received by India?



The distinct season of monsoon sets in the country of India mainly during the month of June and continues till September. Depending upon the weather condition of a particular year, the monsoon might vary slightly. June's rainfall brings a great relief from the hot summer. 80 % of the yearly rainfall gets caused by the south east trade winds originating from the Indian Ocean. Rainfall caused by the south west monsoon gets divided into 2 branches, which are the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea branch. However, monsoon caused from the north eastern part of the country sets in during the month of September. This kind of monsoon is mostly experienced in winter.

The maximum annual precipitation of more than 2, 000 mm is received by the north eastern part of the country, which includes the Himalayan range as well as the Western Ghats. Eastern India receives medium annual rainfall that varies in between 1, 000 mm to 2, 000 mm. The region covered by the Punjab plains and the western Deccan plateau experiences a lesser rainfall in a year. There the annual rainfall ranges from 100 mm to 500 mm. Areas of Rajasthan, Kachchh and Ladakh don't receive a lot of rainfall during the year.

Is India prone to floods?



The peninsular nature of India as well as the possession of innumerable rivers makes the country quite prone to floods. Moreover, the huge rainfall at different parts of the nation contributes to the massive floods. As per G. S. I. (Geological Survey of India), 12.5 % of the country's area is prone to flood.

Which are the major flood prone areas of India?



The plain regions towards the northern part of the country are more prone to flood. However, depending upon the different river systems of India, the flood prone areas of the country can be categorized into the following three heads:
  • Ganga Basin
  • Barak Basin and Brahmaputra Basin
  • River Basins located in the Deccan region and central India
Following are the states that can be regarded as the major flood prone areas of India:
Apart from these, other regions of the country, which are prone to flood, are the deltas and banks of the rivers like Brahmaputra, Damodar, Gandak, Ganga, Ghaggar, Godavari, Mahanadi, Mahananda, Mayurakshi, Kosi, Ravi, Sabarmati, Sutlej, Teesta, Yamuna – Sahibi.

How much area is covered by India?



The country of India spreads over an area of 3, 287, 263 sq. km. In spite of being seventh largest in regards to the total covering area, the country occupies just 2.4 % of the total surface of the earth. The land area of India amounts to around 6, 207 km., which is 90.44 % of the total area. This total land area can be further measured on the basis of the following 2 aspects:
  • Stretch in between north and south: 3, 214 km
  • Stretch in between east and west: 2, 993 km
Among this, the forest areas of India sprawl over an area of 64, 113 sq. km. constituting 19.27 % of the country's total area. 69 % of the total land area of India is covered by dry lands. The other part of 9.56 % is water. Indian rivers are accountable for a total area of about 14, 500 km.

Apart from these, the political boundaries of the nation stretch over 15, 106.70 km area. More details about area covered by the different parts of the national border of India can be gathered from the information provided below:
  • Border with Bangladesh:   4, 096.70 km
  • Border with Bhutan:    6, 99 km
  • Border with China (PRC):    3, 488 km
  • Border with Myanmar:    1, 643 km
  • Border with Nepal:    1, 751 km
  • Border with Pakistan:    3, 323 km

How rich is India in terms of greenery?



The country of India, being an agricultural land is blessed with lots of greenery. Besides this, the country has got vast forest areas. Rich in varied species of flora and fauna, these lush green dense forests help the country balance the natural ecosystem. Along with supporting bio-diversity, some of these forests accommodate a number of dangerous species that are on the way of extinction.

Following are the different ranges of dense forests that contribute to the natural beauty of India:
  • Himalayan range's dry alpine scrub forest
  • Rain forests located towards the north east Indian states, western coastal plains and the islands of Andaman and Nicobar.
The country even houses some charming deciduous forests, semi-evergreen rain forests, thorn forests, pine forests of the sub-tropical regions and many more.

Last Updated on 27 September 2011



     


     

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