Odisha lies on the east coast of the Indian subcontinent. Bhubaneswar is the capital of the state. Odisha is one of the prominent states of the country comprising modern infrastructure and facilities. After independence, significant steps have been taken to develop the rural parts of the state.
Odisha has a rich culture and tradition and is also known as 'the land of temples' as the state is home to several exotic temples. The major attraction here is the classical Odissi dance form.
|Facts on Odisha|
|Date of Formation||Apr 1, 1936|
|Area||155,707 sq km|
|Total Population (2011)||41,974,218|
|Males Population (2011)||21,212,136|
|Females Population (2011)||20,762,082|
|Ratio of Urban Population (2011)||16.69%|
|No. of District||30|
|Rivers||Brahmani, Salandi, Indrawati, Mahanadi, Vanshadhara, Kolab etc.|
|Forests & National Park||Simlipal NP, Bhitarkanika NP, Mahandadi WS, Ushakothi WS|
|Neighbours State||West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh|
|State Animal||Sambar Deer|
|State Bird||Indian roller|
|Net State Domestic Product (2011)||40412|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||76.68%|
|Females per 1000 males||978|
History of Odisha
- The history of Odisha dates back to many centuries. It is believed that during the Mahabharata period, the Sabar and the Saora tribes arrived in the region from the hills.
- In ancient times, Odisha was known as Kalinga.
- In 261 BC, the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka conquered Kalinga. The devastating war deeply affected Ashoka who after seeing the massive killings embraced Buddhism.
- In the 4th century AD, the region came under the control of the Guptas. In the 10th century AD, the state was ruled by the Bhauma-Kara dynasty and later the Soma dynasty.
- Muslims gained prominence in the 13th and the 14th centuries till 1568. The state also witnessed the rule of Nawab of Hyderabad and the Marathas.
- The modern history comprises the British East India Company which subjugated the state in 1803 A.D. During that time, Odisha along with Bihar was apart of Bengal. In 1936, Odisha and Bihar were separated. In 1950, Odisha became a constituent state of India.
Geography of Odisha
Odisha lies on the east coast of the country and is lined with the beautiful seashore of the Bay of Bengal. It covers an area of around 1,55,707 square kilometers. Odisha shares its borders with Madhya Pradesh to its west, Andhra Pradesh to its south, West Bengal to its northeast and Jharkhand to its north. The Bay of Bengal is to the east of the state. The state has diverse habitats and hilly terrain along with lush greenery. The state has major rivers like Mahanadi, Brahmani and Bansadhara. The state comprises three main regions like the plateaus, mountains and coastal plains. There are several deltas that are formed by rivers like Subamarekha, Baitarani, Rushikulya and Budhabalanga. Three fourths of the entire state comprises hills and mountains of the Eastern Ghats. One of the major attractions here is the natural habitat. There are many wildlife sanctuaries in Odisha. More Detail...
Odisha is home to various World Heritage Sites and other monuments. There are hundreds of temples dating from the ancient times. The Sun Temple of Konark in Bhubaneswar and Puri is a World Heritage Site. Besides, there is vast seashore of 500 km that has world famous beaches where one can enjoy water sports or simply bask in the sun. Chilka is a famous black water lake that is home to millions of species of birds. Dolphins are also seen here. Some of the major beaches here are Gopalpur, Chandipur, Puri and Chandrabhaga. Besides, you can also have a picnic on smaller beaches like Aryapalli, Astaranga, Balaramgadi, Paradeep, Talasari and Ramchandi. The state is also known for its wonderful flora and fauna and the Royal Bengal Tiger. The state is famous for its many wildlife sanctuaries. More Detail...
Government and politics
- The state has a unicameral legislature and comprises the Odisha Legislative Assembly which has 147 elected members, speaker and deputy speaker.
- Odisha High Court is located in Cuttack.
- The governor is appointed by the President and is the head of the state.
- There are 147 members of the legislative assembly and one from the Anglo-Indian community. They serve for a term of 5 years, unless the assembly is dissolved before the term.
- Odisha comprises 30 districts which are Angul, Balasore, Bolganir, Boudh, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Cuttak, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Jagatsinghpur, Kalakhandi, Jharsuguda, Nayagarh, Sundargarh, Rayagada, Puri, Kendrapara, Koraput, Khurda, Malkangirir, Ganjam, Rayagada, Sonepur, Sambalpur, Kandahmal, Nabarangapur, Maurbhanj and Jajpur.
Education in Odisha
Odisha has been an important educational center since ancient times. Recently, a Buddhist learning center was found in Ratnagiri in the district of Jajpur.
Today the state is home to some renowned universities. The prestigious NIT Rourkela is an institute of national importance. There are plenty of engineering colleges, science colleges, institutes of higher studies and many more. The state is famous for its mass communication institute IIMC. There are many famous medical colleges located in various parts of the state. Some of the major universities are the Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya, Fakir Mohan University, National Institute of Technology, Odisha University of Agriculture and many more. More Detail...
Economy of Odisha
A major part of the population is engaged in agriculture. The total area of cultivation is 87.46 lakh hectares. Out of this, 18.79 lakh hectares are irrigated. The major crop produced is rice and the state is one of the major rice producing states in the country. Besides rice, oil seeds, jute, pulses, coconut, mesta, turmeric and sugarcane are some other important crops. Tea, rubber and cotton are the cash crops. The other crops that rank second in the state are ragi, jute, gram, mustard, sesame, maize.
The state also has a mineral production like coal, limestone, bauxite, iron ore and various other minerals. Rourkela steel plant was the first ever integrated steel plant in India. Major industries like the Jindal steel, ESSAR steel authority of India, Nilachal Ispat Nigam Limited and Posco, etc. have played a great role in the industrial sector. There are plenty of small scale industries of handicrafts and handloom which contribute in a major way to the economy of the state.
Fishery has also emerged as one of the major components of the economy of the state. Due to the vast coastline, there is a wide scope for inland, brackish water and marine fisheries. More Detail...
In the year 2011, the population of Odisha was 4,19,74,218. The ratio of female and male is 978 females per 1000 males. The population density is 13.97% and is 269 per sq km.
The literacy rate is around 73% in Odisha of which around 82% are males and 64% females are literates. These figures are according to the 2011 census.
Society and Culture
Odisha has a rich rich culture and tradition. The state has a department that looks after the culture and promotes systematic and comprehensive fields of arts and culture. The state has many temples that have earned appreciation from the world.
Oriya has been recognised as the official language of Odisha. The native inhabitants belonged to the Aryan family and the language here is similar to that of Bengali, Assamese and Maithili. Over the years Oriya has formed many other variations in the language like the Baleswari, Bhatri, Laria, Sambalpuri, Ganjami, Chattisgarhi, and Medinipuri. Oriya was first discovered in Urajang in 1051 A.D.
84% of the population speaks Oriya. It is also one of the oldest languages in India and is spoken in the neighbouring states as well. There are other languages that are spoken here by people who come from different states. Hindi is the second most spoken language that is popular and is widely accepted. Besides, Urdu and Bengali along with Telugu is also spoken by some people. English is spoken only by those who are literate.
Transport in Odisha
Some of the National Highway that run though the state are 5, 6, 23, 42 and 43. There are also railways, waterways and airways in Odisha. Bhubaneswar railway station is a major railhead in the state. Rail service is provides by trains like Konark, Rajdhani, Express and the Coromondal express. Paradip is the only major port here, where import and export take place. Odisha also has a domestic airport and is well connected to all major cities in the state. Transport facilities are quite developed here. Due to the development projects going on in the state and as the state is being recognised as a prominent tourist destination, transport is being given greater significance and the government is focusing on projects like international airports, etc.
Last Updated on : January 31, 2017