Odisha is a state which lies on the east coast of the Indian subcontinent. Its capital is Bhubaneswar. The state is an important part of the country with modern infrastructure and facilities. After independence, there has been a tremendous improvement to develop the rural parts of the state.
It is also known as 'the land of temples' as there are a number of temples that are beautifully carved and are a proud testimony to the empires that were established here. The land is also famous for its cultural heritage. The major attraction here is the classical Odissi dance form. Odisha has more than just culture and tradition.
|Facts on Odisha|
|Date of Formation||Apr 1, 1936|
|Area||155,707 sq km|
|Total Population (2011)||41,974,218|
|Males Population (2011)||21,212,136|
|Females Population (2011)||20,762,082|
|Ratio of Urban Population (2011)||16.69%|
|No. of District||30|
|Rivers||Brahmani, Salandi, Indrawati, Mahanadi, Vanshadhara, Kolab etc.|
|Forests & National Park||Simlipal NP, Bhitarkanika NP, Mahandadi WS, Ushakothi WS|
|Neighbours State||West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh|
|State Animal||Sambar Deer|
|State Bird||Indian roller|
|Net State Domestic Product (2011)||40412|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||76.68%|
|Females per 1000 males||978|
History of Odisha
Geography of Odisha
Odisha lies on the east coast of the country and is lined with the beautiful seashore of the Bay of Bengal. It has an area of around 1,55,707 square kilometers. The state is surrounded by states like Madhya Pradesh to its west, Andhra Pradesh to its south, West Bengal to its northeast and Jharkhand to its north. The Bay of Bengal is to the east of the state. The state has diverse habitats and hilly terrain along with lush greenery. The coastal plains and river valleys are incredible. The state has major rivers like Mahanadi, Brahmani and Bansadhara. The state comprises three main regions like the plateaus, mountains and coastal plains. There are several deltas that are formed by rivers like Subamarekha, Baitarani, Rushikulya and Budhabalanga. Three fourths of the entire state comprises hills and mountains of the Eastern Ghats. One of the major attractions here is the natural habitat of the wildlife. There are many wildlife sanctuaries in Odisha. More Detail...
Tourism of Odisha
The state of Odisha can be found from the ancient times which mean there are various monuments that are now a world heritage site and plenty of other monuments that are architectural marvels today. There are hundreds of temples here from the ancient times and of rulers who had built their vast empire here. The temples are worth having a look as they are grander and visually appealing. The Sun Temple of Konark in Bhubaneswar and Puri has been awarded a World Heritage Site. Besides, there is vast seashore of 500 km that has world famous beaches to enjoy water sports or simply bask in the sun. Chilka is the famous black water lake that has been recognised as the haven for millions of species of birds. Dolphins are also seen here. Some of the major beaches here are Gopalpur, Chandipur, Puri and Chandrabhaga. Besides you can also have a picnic on smaller beaches like Aryapalli, Astaranga, Balaramgadi, Paradeep, Talasari and Ramchandi. The lush greenery plays host to a number of flora and fauna and has given rise to the famous Royal Bengal Tiger. There are plenty of wildlife sanctuaries here due to the greenery found everywhere. Besides, there are waterfalls, lakes and museums as well. More Detail...
Government and politics
The state of Odisha has a parliamentary system of representative democracy. The state government comprises two bodies known as the Odisha legislative and the legislature. The legislative assembly comprises elected members and speaker and deputy speaker. Odisha high court is located in Cuttack and has lower courts. The governor is appointed by the President and is the head of the state. The Chief Minister is appointed by the leader of the winning party or by a coalition of parties. There are 147 members of the legislative assembly and one from the Anglo-Indian community. They serve for a term of 5 years, unless the assembly is dissolved before the term. Odisha has 21 and 10 seats to Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha respectively in the Indian Parliament. Odisha comprises 30 districts called the Angul, Balasore, Bolganir, Boudh, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Cuttak, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Jagatsinghpur, Kalakhandi, Jharsuguda, Nayagarh, Sundargarh, Rayagada, Puri, Kendrapara, Koraput, Khurda, Malkangirir, Ganjam, Rayagada, Sonepur, Sambalpur, Kandahmal, Nabarangapur, Maurbhanj and Jajpur.
Regarding politics, the state has some major parties like the Biju Janata Bal, the Bharatiya Janata party, the Indian National Congress. Every party has able leaders who are interested in the development of the state. More Detail...
Education in Odisha
Odisha has been a seat of education from primary to the highest level since the ancient times. There are ruins of educational institutions of the past era. The state was famous as an education hub in ancient days. Recently, a Buddhist learning center has been found in Ratnagiri in the district of Jajpur.
Today the state has some of the renowned universities in the country. The prestigious NIT Rourkela is an institute of national importance. There are plenty of engineering colleges, science colleges, institutes of higher studies and many more. The state is famous for mass communication course known as the IIMC, which is one of the two premium institutions of mass communication. There are also famous medical colleges located in various parts of the state. Some of the major universities are the Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Shri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya, Fakir Mohan University, National Institute of Technology, Odisha University of Agriculture and many more. More Detail...
Economy of Odisha
Odisha has major of its population engaged in agriculture. The total area of cultivation is 87.46 lakh hectares. Out of which 18.79 lakh hectares are irrigated. The major crop produced is rice and the state is one of the major rice producing states in the country. District wise the state produces different crops. Besides rice, oil seeds, jute, pulses, coconut, mesta, turmeric and sugarcane are important crops. Tea, rubber and cotton are the cash crops. The other crops that rank second in the state are ragi, jute, gram, mustard, sesame, maize.
The state also has a mineral production like coal, limestone, bauxite, iron ore and various other minerals. It has a third position of bauxite reserves in the country. Rourkela steel plant was the first ever integrated steel plant in India. Major industries like the Jindal steel, ESSAR steel authority of India, Nilachal Ispat Nigam Limited and Posco, etc. have played a great role in the industrial sector. There are plenty of small scale industries of handicrafts and handloom which contribute in a major way to the economy of the state.
Fishery has also emerged as one of the major components of the economy of the state. Due to the vast coastline, there is a wide scope for inland, brackish water and marine fisheries. More Detail...
In the year 2011, the population of Odisha was 4,19,74,218. The ratio of female and male is 978 females per 1000 males. The population density is 13.97% and is 269 per sq km.
The literacy rate is around 73% in Odisha of which around 82% are males and 64% females are literates. These figures are according to the 2011 census.
The population of the state is rising at a greater speed. The initiative has been taken by the government to focus on the female literacy and the infant mortality rate. However, the infrastructure is getting better and with it other facilities like hospitals, transport, education and jobs are also improving.
Society and Culture
Odisha is the bastion of rich culture and tradition and is evident due to the historical monuments, sculpture, artists, dance and music. The state has a department that looks after the culture and promotes systematic and comprehensive fields of arts and culture. The culture of Odisha can be seen from the ancient times that have left their mark in the form of temples and monuments. The state is full of temples that have earned appreciation from the world.
Oriya has been recognised as the official language of Odisha. The native inhabitants belonged to the Aryan family and the language here is similar to that of Bengali, Assamese and Maithili. Over the years Oriya has formed many other variations in the language like the Baleswari, Bhatri, Laria, Sambalpuri, Ganjami, Chattisgarhi, and Medinipuri. Oriya can be found to have a different tone and the version in the hilly terrains and peculiarities. Oriya has been first discovered in Urajang in 1051 A.D. the script has been defending from the Brahmi and has a Dravidian finish.
The state has 84% of population speaking Oriya. It is also one of the oldest languages in India and spoken in the neighbouring states as well. There are other languages that are spoken here by people who come from different states. Hindi is the second most spoken language that is popular and is widely accepted. Besides, there are Urdu and Bengali along with Telugu which is also spoken by some people. English is spoken only by those who are literate.
Transport in Odisha
Transport here is as good as in other states of India. The state has a great network of roads along with national highways. National highway numbers like 5, 6, 23, 42 and 43 run through the state. There are also railways, waterways and airways in Odisha. Bhubaneswar railway station is a major railhead in the state. Several trains like Konark, Rajdhani, Express and the Coromondal express, etc make it convenient and comfortable travel. Paradip is the only major port here, where import and export take place. Odisha also has a domestic airport and is well connected to all major cities in the state as well as major Indian cities. Transport facilities are quite developed here. Due to the development projects going on in the state and as the state is being recognised as a prominent tourist state, transport is being given greater significance and the government is focusing on projects like international airports, etc.
Last Updated on : December 19, 2014