Quantcast
Home   »   India   »   Development in India After Independence

Development in India After Independence

August 1, 2014

Development in India After Independence
While some have a high opinion of India’s growth story since its independence, some others think the country’s performance in the six decades has been abysmal. It’s arguably true that the Five-Year Plans did target specific sectors in order to quicken the pace of development, yet the outcome hasn’t been on expected lines. And, the country is taking its own sweet time to catch up with the developed world. All efforts are frustrated by lopsided strategies and inept implementation of policies.

The Two Phases of Economy

An independent India was bequeathed a shattered economy, widespread illiteracy and shocking poverty.

Contemporary economists divide the history of India’s economic growth into two phases – first 45 years after independence and the two decades of free market economy. The years preceding the economic liberalisation were mainly marked by instances wherein economic development got stagnated due to a lack of meaningful policies.

The economic reforms came to India’s rescue with the launching of a policy of liberalisation and privatisation. A flexible industrial licensing policy and a relaxed FDI policy started getting positive responses from international investors. Among the major factors that drove India’s economic growth following the economic reforms of 1991 were increased FDI, adoption of information technology and an increased domestic consumption.

Service Sector Growth

A major development in the nation’s services sector has been the tele services and information technology. A trend that started some two decades back is now well in its prime. Several multinational firms continue to outsource their tele services and IT services to India. The acquisition of expertise in information technology has led to the generation of thousands of new jobs, which in turn increased domestic consumption and naturally, more foreign direct investments happened to meet the demands.

Presently, the services sector employs 23% of the Indian workforce and this process of development started back in the 1980s. In the 60s, the sector employed only 4.5% of the working population. According to the Central Statistical Organization, the services sector accounted for 63% of Indian GDP in 2008 and the figure continues to grow.

Growth of Agriculture Sector

Since 1950s, the progress in agriculture has been somewhat steady. The sector grew at about 1 percent per annum in the first half of the 20th century. During the post-Independence era, the growth rate nudged about 2.6 percent per annum. Expansion of farming area and introduction of high-yielding varieties of crops were the major factors of growth in agricultural production. The sector could manage to end dependency on imported food grains. It has progressed both in terms of yield and structural changes.

Consistent investment in research, land reforms, expansion of scope for credit facilities, and improvement in rural infrastructure were some other determining factors that brought about an agricultural revolution in the country. The country has also grown strong in the agri-biotech sector. The Rabobank report reveals that the agri-biotech sector has been growing at 30 percent since the last few years. The country is also likely to become a major producer of genetically modified/engineered crops.

Infrastructure Development

The Indian road network has become one of the largest in the world with the total road length increasing from 0.399 million km in 1951 to 4.24 million km as of July 2014. Moreover, the total length of the country’s national highways has increased from 24,000 km (1947-69) to 92,851 km (2014). Governmental efforts have led to the expansion of the network of State highways and major district roads, which in turn has directly contributed to industrial growth.

As India needs power to drive its growth engine, it has triggered a noteworthy improvement in the availability of energy by adopting a multi-pronged approach. After almost seven decades of Independence, India has emerged as the third largest producer of electricity in Asia. It has increased its electricity generation capacity from 1,362 MW in 1947 to 1,13,506 MW as of 2004. Overall, power generation in India has increased from 301 billion units (BUs) during 1992- 93 to 558.1 BUs in 2003- 04. When it comes to rural electrification, the Indian government has managed to bring lights to 5,93,732 (2013 figures) villages as compared to 3061 in 1950.

Progress in Education Sector

Pulling itself out from widespread illiteracy, India has managed to bring its education system at par with the global standard. The number of schools witnessed a dramatic increase during the post-independence era. The Parliament made elementary education a fundamental right for children in the age group of 6-14 years by passing the 86th amendment to the Constitution in 2002. At independence, India’s literacy rate was a paltry 12.2 % which increased to 74.04% in 2011.

The Government launched the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in 2001 to ensure education for the children from 6 to 14 years. Prior to that, it had launched an effective initiative – Sponsored District Education Programme, which increased the number of schools across the country. In a bid to attract children to schools, especially in the rural areas, the government also started implementing the mid-day meals programme in 1995.

Achievements in the Field of Healthcare

A decrease in death rates is considered one of the major achievements that came India’s way in this sector. While life expectancy was around 37 years in 1951, it almost doubled to 65 years by 2011. Infant mortality has also seen a marked decline with death rate coming down to half of what it was during the 50s. Similar improvement was noticed in maternal mortality rate also.

After a long-drawn struggle, India has finally been declared a polio-free country. Malnutrition in children under five years came down to 44% in 2006 from 67% in 1979. Government’s efforts yielded result as the number of tuberculosis cases also got reduced to 185 per lakh people in 2009. The cases of HIV-infected people are also witnessing a declining trend. Besides increased public health spending (about 6% of the GDP), the government has launched a series of ambitious initiatives including ‘Healthcare for all by 2020′ and distribution of free medicines to the people falling under lowest-income group.

Scientific Achievements

Independent India has taken confident strides in its road to scientific development. Its prowess is being manifested in a gradual scaling up of ambitious projects. India takes pride in its space programmes, which began with the launch of its first satellite Aryabhatta in 1975. Since then, India has emerged as a space power that has successfully launched foreign satellites. Its first mission to Mars was launched in November 2013 which successfully reached the planet’s orbit on 24 September 2014.

India is also aggressively pursuing both nuclear and missile programmes. That has simultaneously augmented the country’s defence strength as well. BrahMos inducted into the defence system is the world’s fastest cruise missile that has been jointly developed by India and Russia. After more than six decades of independence, India has now come closer to being an independent force to reckon with in the field of nuclear and missile technology.

 

Read Also:

Independence Day Speech Ideas for Students, Children, Teachers
70th Independence Day of India
69th Independence Day of India
About Independence Day
National Song of India
National Anthem of India
National Symbols of India
Nehru’s Message to Nation
15th August 1947: India after Partition is declared Independent of British Rule
26 January was Declared as Purna Swaraj Day
July 18th 1947: The India Independence Act 1947 Comes into Force
Unsung Heroes of Indian Independence
Pre-Partition Map of India
National Anthem controversy
Freedom Fighters of India
Skill development in India
NGOs and Rural Development in India
Sustainable Development Education in Schools
Disguised Unemployment in India

 


avatar

A practicing agnostic who goes full monty with life. Survival doesn't make much sense, yet I am at it.

Comments

Comments
Showing 13 Comments :

India’s greatest strength lies in the developing rural world.India is rich as her citizens have emancipation from deprivation, we have no prejudice for anyone, we have liberty to keep our earnings.Love you India,of course we are firstly and lastly Indians as well said by Bhim Rao Ambedkar ji.

Reply

Thanks for your intriguing article. One other problem is that mesothelioma cancer is generally brought on by the inhalation of materials from asbestos fiber, which is a very toxic material. It truly is commonly seen among laborers in the engineering industry that have long experience of asbestos. It’s also caused by residing in asbestos insulated buildings for a long time of time, Your age plays a crucial role, and some people are more vulnerable towards the risk as compared with others.

Reply

good information it completely related to my book

Reply
shamsher singh kanunia August 13, 2016 at 4:08 pm

Indian make develop our India

Reply

IT should be develop by indian

Reply

well done bharat

Reply

Bsn academy school

Reply

good india developed by our self

Reply

INDIA MEANS Independence Nation Declaration In August

Reply

Our India has developing country not a developed country for became developed we can do our job perfect for our nation

Reply

Really, India had change.
The unity can be only in India.
We thanks to our hounarable Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi.

Thank you and Jai hind

Reply

USA and Japan are important for us plus south koera and isrel. We must have with them strategic alliance. Focus on dealing with them for technology transfer instead of simple import.

Sendly there is ample un utilised agricultural land in different part of india which can be utilised for farm and agricultural production. Use manrega for this purpose. For example farmer can be motivated to do farm related activities and paid through manrega while they can get value also from their farm production by selling produce to the government. By this farmer will get double benefit and they will get food as well. Further country will be self reliant on food front. Jai jawan jai kissan. One more thing proposed SB account facility and insurance is very good, keep insurance input dynamic which should be increased year by year or with increase in inflation , it can further be extend.ed to whole family members. This should be widely published and must be free from all kind of corruption and thoroughly monitored. Jai hind

Reply