Geography of India

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Geographic Map of India
India is the seventh largest country in the world which makes it obvious for it to have vast geographical features. It lies on the Indian Plate, a northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.

Geographical Features

The country covers an area of about 3.28 million sq km. The mainland of India extends between 8°4' and 37°6' N latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' E longitude. The Tropic of Cancer 23°30' N divides India into almost two halves. The land frontier of the country is 15,200 km and the total length of the coastline is 7,517 kilometers. Indian peninsula tapers southward resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two water bodies - the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. In India, there is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains, and a number of islands. Broadly the physical features of India can be divided into several physical units - The Great Mountains of the north, The North Indian Plain, The Peninsular Plateau, The Coastal Plains, The Thar Desert and The Islands.


There are 29 states in India, located in the total area of 3,287,263 sq km. The largest of all Indian states is Rajasthan, which covers an area of 3,42,239 sq km. It shares its border with Pakistan on its west, Gujarat on its southwest, Madhya Pradesh on its southeast and Punjab on its north.

Goa is the smallest state in India, located merely in 3702 sq km. The state is located to the southwest of India. Uttar Pradesh lying to the northeast of the country is the most populous state. Gujarat, lying on the extreme west of India, is one of the most prosperous of all Indian states. The strikingly beautiful Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state in the country. India's eastern border is equipped by states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Assam ,Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh. All these states together are located in the 7% of the total area of the country. The union territories in the country are seven in numbers. Delhi, the capital of India, also falls under this category. The other union territories of the country include Chandigarh, located to the north of the country, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, located to the west of the country, Lakshadweep, located to the southwest of the country, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, located to the southeast of the country.


India has a large reserve of rivers - big and small, and all these rivers are revered in the country other than merely being the sources of water. The River Brahmaputra is a trans-boundary river. It originates in Tibet and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and passes through Assam before finally making its way through Bangladesh. The river Ganga is the longest river in India and is considered to be the most pious river in the country. It has several tributaries including river Yamuna, which is the only water body near the National Capital - New Delhi. River Chambal, a tributary of Yamuna passes through Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The other major rivers in India include Narmada River, originating at Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh, river Godavari, originating at Trayambakeshwar in Maharashtra, river Krishna originating at Mahabaleshwar, river Kaveri passing through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, Mahanadi River flowing through Chhattisgarh and Odisha. The other rivers in the country include Mahi, Betwa, Penner, Kosi, Tungabhadra and several others.


India shares its international borders with Pakistan on its west, Nepal, China and Bhutan on its northwest. It is surrounded by Burma and Bangladesh on its east. Sri Lanka lies to the south of India and the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie close to Thailand and Indonesia.


India has a variety of climatic regions, varying from tropical climate in the south to temperate and alpine climate in the Himalayan north. The climate is altered by the Thar Desert and the Himalayas. Some areas in the north have severe summers with extreme winters, with the temperature reaching to freezing point. The country encounters four different types of seasons - winter (from January to February), summer (from March to May), monsoon or rainy (from June to September) and post-monsoon (from October to December). In some states, the temperature in summers rise up to 45°C and minimum temperature decreases to 15°C only. In winters, the average temperature is about 10-15°C. The highest temperature recorded in India so far is 50.6°C in Alwar, Rajasthan. The lowest temperature was recorded in Kashmir at -45°C.

The map will help you locate all these and more. All the international boundaries of the country are marked in pink lines. Grey dotted lines stand for the state boundaries and help you be familiar with all the Indian states and their neighbours. The blue lines scattered throughout the map represent all the major rivers in the country.


Last Updated on : December 9, 2014


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