The history of Maharashtra can be divided into the following periods:
The early history :The early history of the great state includes a short history of the name along with the various kingdoms which have been established in the land. Maharashtra, etymologically derived from the word maharathi meaning the great chariot driver, first appeared as it is in the records of the Chinese traveler Huen Tsang. The early inhabitants of Maharashtra consisted of the great fighters who had even named the state as dandakaranya or the jungle which was ruled by kings.
Islamic Influence :Just like any other rule, there was a considerable amount of Islamic influence on history of Maharashtra. The first Islamic invasions which reached the south of the Narmada River were made by the Khilji Dynasty, the rulers of Bengal under Mohammad Ghori. Ala - ud - din Khalji invaded the Deccan region in the year 1296 AD. He defeated the last of the Hindu kings of the state, the Yadavas. At first the Islamic rulers invaded the northern part of the country and made Delhi their capital but after this invasion the others followed the trend and extended their kingdoms further south.
After the Khalji Dynasty the next among Islamic invasions to influence the state was made by Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. The Tughlaq Dynasty reigned till 1347 AD and extended the empire till Madurai. After the disintegration of the Tughlaq Dynasty, the Bahmani Sultanate of Bijapur ruled the region for the coming 150 years.
Maratha Empire :The beginning of the Maratha Empire in the 17th century AD was an important landmark for the state of Maharashtra. The Maratha Empire was started by Shivaji in the year 1674 in the Bijapur Sultanate. Before the establishment of the Maratha Empire the cause of the natives were put forward through the Yadavas. But under the leadership of the able Shivaji the Maratha Power gained a new momentum.
Shivaji unchained the Marathas from the rule of the Muslim ruler of Bijapur. The reign of the Marathas proved dangerous for the Mughal emperors, whose territory was continuously attacked by the army of Shivaji. Successful campaigns against the Mughals included the capturing of the port of Surat. Ten years later Shivaji crowned himself the king of the Marathas or the Chhatrapati. After his death in the year 1680, the two sons of Shivaji, Shambhaji and Rajaram both ruled the empire for a considerable amount of time.
Shivaji Empire :The rise of the Maratha power in Maharashtra received impetus and strength after the great Chhatrapati Shivaji, took the reigns in his hands and founded the Shivaji Empire. In the early 17th century there was a sudden rise in the power of the Marathas. Their causes were upheld by the Yadavas who gradually formed alliance with the Bahmani rulers due to their inability to defend their kingdom from the Bahmani invasions. There were basically two power centres after the bhahmani kingdom was divided into - Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda. They were the southern kingdoms and the Mughal rulers under the rule of the Emperor Shah Jahan.
Battles fought with the Mughals - The battles which Shivaji fought with the Mughal, especially with Shaista Khan, have been engraved in the chapters of history as examples of bravery and intelligence. The Battle of Umberkhind in 1661, the attack on the Mughal camp in Pune and the Battle of Surat were enough to rouse the anger of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Shivaji lost his Purandhar fort which was later reclaimed during the years 1670 to 1674.
Peshwa Dynasty :Peshwa stands for Prime Minister, in Marathi. As the name suggests, the Peshwa of the last ruler of the Shivaji dynasty, Shahu, ascended the throne and established the Peshwa Dynasty. In the year 1712, Balaji Vishwanath laid the foundations of the Peshwa Dynasty. The Peshwa Dynasty prevented the Maratha Empire from disintegration after the death of Shahu in the year 1712.
The Peshwa Dynasty brought the Maratha Kingdom into new heights of glory during the reign from 1712 to 1804. Bajirao 1 made Pune the capital of the Peshwa rule. During his reign the Maratha Kingdom had to suffer a crumbling defeat in the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Third Battle of Panipat in the year 1761. The defeat reduced the power of the Maratha kingdom and confined it regionally.
British Rule :The British rule in the states of Maharashtra could be established only after they had fought three Anglo - Maratha wars. The region was governed under the Bombay Presidency which included most parts of northern Deccan. The princely states in the region included the modern cities of Nagpur, Satara and Kolhapur which accepted the British supremacy in return of maintaining local autonomy. These states were annexed to the Bombay presidency in the years 1848 and 1853. However most of the parts of modern Maharashtra known as Marathawada was part of the Nizam's rule. During the later years the minor protests and revolts were subdued by the British. By that time the Mughal power had already crumbled. Therefore the fall of the Maratha power in the hands of the British marked the beginning of the British rule in India.
Post Independence (1947) :After India attained independence from the clutches of the British rule in the year 1947, Maharashtra went through a number of political changes. Post independence period saw the western Maharashtra and present day Gujarat being united under the Bombay state the eastern parts which were a part of the Hyderabad state were later also united with the Bombay state in the year 1956.
The modern state of Maharashtra came into existence in the year 1960.Under the Bombay Reorganization Act the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were legally given the status of separate states on the basis of linguistic differences. The present Bombay city became the capital city of Maharashtra. The modern history of Maharashtra includes the period from attainment of independence to the final separation of the states.
Last Updated on : 21 May 2013