Soil and Vegetation of Maharashtra

The soil and vegetation of Maharashtra are related to the climate and the geology. The soil in the Deccan plateau is made up of black basalt soil. This type of soil is rich in humus.
The soil is commonly known as the black cotton soil because it is best suited for the cultivation of cotton.

The volcanic action which had taken place in the Deccan region has given rise to the soil texture and composition. These igneous rocks break down into the black soil which is very fertile.

The Wardha - Waliganga river valley has old crystalline rocks and saline soils which make the soil infertile.

This type of soil has a natural resistance to wind and water erosion because it is rich in iron and granular in structure. A very important advantage of this type of soil is that it can retain moisture. This makes the soil very reactive to irrigation.

The vegetation mainly consists of the forest region of the Western Ghats, the Satpura Ranges and the Chandrapur region. The coastal region of the Konkan Coast has paddy fields as the vegetation. The coastal belt consists of eminent trees like the mango and the coconut and shrubs.

The forests have a very high value because they yield teak, bamboo, myrobylan etc. the vegetation is rich in the areas which have a good annual rainfall. Thick evergreen deciduous forests cover 17% of the land of Maharashtra.

Last Updated on : 21 May 2013