West Bengal Geography



The Geography of West Bengal is varied. The state of West Bengal is situated in the eastern part of India. On the east lies Bangladesh. Sikkim and Bhutan lie on the north of West Bengal. The state of Assam is situated on the north east of West Bengal. Bihar and Jharkhand is situated on the western side of the state. The geographical location of the state is 23 degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude.

The total area of West Bengal is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2001, the state has a population of 8,02,21,171. The population density of West Bengal per square kilometer is 904. Out of the total population of the state, the ratio between males and females is 934. The population of West Bengal is predominated by the Bengali population. But immigration from different states of India has enriched the population diversity of West Bengal.

The topography of the state also varies from region to region. The northern part of West Bengal touches the Himalayan range. The topography of West Bengal alters as the Indo-Gangetic plain begins. The Gangetic plain is rich in alluvial soil and thus is very fertile. This kind of soil is suitable for agriculture. Further south, the deltaic plain or the Sunderban region is a very important spot for tourism in West Bengal.

The climate of West Bengal is full of variation. The state experiences a tropical type of climate. The seasons in West Bengal can be broadly categorized into summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons.

Geography of West Bengal depends on

Area

The area of West Bengal touches the Himalayan range in the north and Bay of Bengal in the south. The capital of the state is the city of Kolkata. West Bengal is a state in India where the tourists keep coming back to devour the rustic feel of nature. The total area of the state is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2001, the state has a population of 8,02,21,171.

The state of West Bengal is situated in the eastern part of India. On the east lies Bangladesh. Sikkim and Bhutan lie on the north of West Bengal. The state of Assam is situated on the north east of West Bengal. The geographical location of the state is 23-degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude.

The area of West Bengal can be divided into broad physiographic divisions. The foothills of the Himalaya are known as the Terai region. This area is famous for the tea plantation. Then onwards, starts the plain land formed by river Ganga. The main distributary of Ganga is the Hoogly River that flows over the area of Kolkata. The Sunderbans or the delta region is an important spot for tourism in West Bengal.

The urban and the rural population form a part of the total area of West Bengal. According to the census, 70% of the total population resides in the rural areas. The people occupying the area of the state are mainly Bengali. But there is a marked heterogeneity in the population of West Bengal.

Biodiversity

The term biodiversity of a place signifies the variety of living organisms. It also includes the variety of species of the plant and animal kingdom. The ecosystem is also involved with the biodiversity of nature. The need for conservation of the natural resources, the ecosystem is strongly felt. Thus The West Bengal Biodiversity Board under the Department of Environment has also been set up in the state with the initiative of the West Bengal government.



The flora of West Bengal depends on the topography of the state. The geographical factors along with the physiography are mainly responsible for the growth and sustenance of these species of plants. According to a survey, carried on by the Forest Department of West Bengal in 1994, the forests cover almost 15.06% of the total area of the state.

There are protected forest areas or sanctuaries in the northern part of the state. The Gorumara National Park, Neora Valley National Parks and Sanctuaries at Jaldapara, Chapramari and Mahananda are among the popular tourist spots. The Buxa region is famous for its tiger reserve. Rare species of one horned rhinoceros, elephants, reptiles and birds are found here. The Sunderban is famous for the Royal Bengal tigers.

The topography of West Bengal is varied from north to south. In the north, the districts lie in the hilly region of the Himalayas. The Terrai region lies in the foothills of the Himalayan range. The Ganga plain is formed by the river Ganga and her distributaries. The Sunderban is the delta region formed at the confluence of Ganga.

There are a number of rivers that flow through the mountainous region of West Bengal. Some of the rivers in this region are Teesta, Torsha, Jaldhaka, Raidak and Sankosh. Further south, Mahananda river flows through the central region. The Hoogly River is an important distributary of Ganga that flows mainly through Kolkata. The main river of West Bengal Ganga is fed by its numerous tributaries and ultimately it forms the estuary before merging with Bay of Bengal.

Topography

West Bengal lies in the eastern part of India. The capital city is Kolkata. The total area of the state is 88,752 sq km. The state has a population of 8,02,21,171, according to the census of 2001. The topography of the state of West Bengal is varied and its physiography is very interesting.

West Bengal is surrounded by land forms on all three sides. In its south lies the Bay of Bengal. It shares boundaries with Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Bangladesh, Jharkhand and Bihar. The northern part of West Bengal touches the Himalayan range. The hill stations lying in this geographical region are the favorite tourist destinations in India. The climate of this part remains more or less cold through out the year. The foot hills of the Himalayan region is known as the Terrai region in West Bengal. This region is famous the world over for tea plantation.

The topography of West Bengal alters as the Indo-Gangetic plain begins. River Ganga with its important distributary, the Hoogly river flow over this region. But the track of river Ganga is steadily moving eastwards. The Hoogly river mostly flow through Kolkata. This Gangetic plain is rich in alluvial soil and thus is very fertile. This kind of soil has helped West Bengal to prosper in agriculture.

Further south, the deltaic plain of the Sunderbans is a very important spot for tourism in West Bengal. The river Ganga and its distributaries meet the confluence here. The topography of this region is dotted with mangrove vegetation.

Location

The state of West Bengal lies in the eastern part of India. The state is mainly a riverine plain land with its northern fringes the foothills of Himalaya. Due to its location, it experiences a tropical kind of climate. The geographical location of West Bengal is 23 degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude. It is also an important tourist spot in India.

In India, West Bengal is considered to be the twelfth largest state. The total area of the state of West Bengal is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2001, the state has a population of 8,02,21,171. The location of West Bengal attracts the tourists from all parts of the world. The Northern Himalaya Range surrounds the state. The state of Assam lies in the east where as Sikkim and Bhutan share their boundaries in the north. The country of Nepal is in the north west of West Bengal. To the west of the state lie Bihar and Jharkhand.

Due to the favorable location of West Bengal, it can be accessible by roadways, railways and by airways. The hill stations located in the north of the state and the Sunderbans lying in the south are favorite tourist destinations in West Bengal. The location also favors the climate of the state, which makes it suitable for cultivation of different food crops mainly paddy.

Flora

Flora of a place includes the different species of plant life. West Bengal is full of nature's bounty and the plant life and animal life of this eastern state of India are rich and varied. The diversity of nature in West Bengal depends basically on three factors and these are the location, adequate rainfall and the climate.

The flora in the state of West Bengal is classified according to the physiographic regions. In the north of the state lies the mountainous type of forestry, including temperate and tropical forests. Deciduous forest is usually found in the plateau region. The Sunderban area has mangrove forest cover.

The tropical evergreen forests of the north are seen at an altitude below 1000 meter and from the altitude of 1000 meter and above a forest cover of sub tropical trees like Cedrela, different varieties of Laurel and Bamboo are found. Temperate forests consist of trees like Conifer, Oak and Rhodendrons. But for the purpose of tea plantation, the some of the forest area has been cleared. The important trees of the hilly region are the Birch, Beech and Deodars. On the moist slopes of the hilly terrain orchids and moss are found to grow in abundance. On higher altitudes small bushes and flowering plants grow. In the foothills of Himalaya, protected forest cover is found. The flora of this region is mainly of moist deciduous type of which, Sal is the most popular variety. Shrubs and heavy undergrowth are found in these forest regions. The flora of West Bengal is different in the Sunderban region than the higher altitudes. Trees like Sundari and Garan are important trees of the Mangrove forest.

Last Updated on 21 March 2013

     


     

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