State formation in India


State formation in India

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State formation in India
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India comprises of 36 states and Union territories. Of these, 29 are states while seven are Union Territories.

The political map of India in 1947 was quite different as compared to the present one. During the British rule, India comprised provinces, which were directly under the rule of the British government and the princely states which were controlled by the local kings. However, these local kings were subservient to the British.

Following the independence of India in 1947, it was a herculean task for the newly formed government to integrate all the princely states into the Indian federation. Between the years 1947 and 1950, all the princely states were integrated within the Indian Union. Many of the former princely states were either made new provinces or were attached with existing provinces of the country.

On October 1, 1953, the Andhra State was created. The state comprised the Telugu-speaking districts of Madras State. In 1954, the Union Territory of Puducherry was established. The newly-created Union Territory comprised Yanam, Karaikal, Mahé, and Pondichéry, which were former French enclaves.

In 1956, as a part of the States Reorganization Act, the states in India were arranged on linguistic basis. This resulted in the creation of new states. Andhra Pradesh was created by merging Andhra State with the Telugu speaking area of the Hyderabad State. Travancore State was merged with the Malabar district of the Madras State to form Kerala state. Patiala and East Punjab States Union were merged with Punjab. Madhya Pradesh was created with the merger of Vindhya Pradesh, Bhopal State and the Madhya Bharat province.

The Mysore state was expanded as the western Hyderabad state and the Coorg state were added to it. In 1973, Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka. The Bombay State was also expanded with the addition of Hyderabad's Marathwada region, Saurashtra and Kutch, and the Nagpur division of Madhya Pradesh. New areas were added to Rajasthan. These were parts of Madhya Pradesh and Bombay State and the Ajmer State. The Madras State witnessed changes as the Malabar district was merged with Kerala. The Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi islands were made new territories. These were renamed as the Lakshwadeep Islands in 1973.

Following the States Reorganization Act of 1956, more states were created. In 1960, Bombay State was divided into the two states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. On December 1, 1963, Nagaland was created. In 1966 the Punjab Reorganization Act was implemented. With this, Haryana was carved out of the state on November 1, 1966, while the northern districts were added with Himachal Pradesh. Chandigarh was established as a Union Territory and was shared by both Punjab and Haryana.

In 1968, Madras was renamed as Tamil Nadu. On January 21, 1972, the three states of Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura in the northeast were formed. Sikkim, which was an independent nation, was merged with the Indian Union on May 16, 1975, as the 22nd state. On 20 February 1987, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh became states, while Goa became a state on May 30th of the same year. Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which were the exclaves of Goa, became seperate Union Territories.

In November 2000, the three states of Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal and Jharkhand were created. Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkahand from Bihar, and Uttaranchal from Uttar Pradesh. In 2007, the name of Uttaranchal was changed to Uttarakhand. Telangana is the latest state to be created. The state was formed on June 2, 2014 and comprises the ten districts that were a part of the Andhra Pradesh's north-western region.

StatesZoneCapitalFounded YearOfficial Languages
Andhra PradeshSouthernAmaravati, Hyderabad1 Oct 1953Telugu
Arunachal PradeshNorth-EasternItanagar20 Feb 1987English
AssamNorth-EasternDispur26 Jan 1950Assamese
BiharEasternPatna26 Jan 1950Hindi, Urdu
ChhattisgarhCentralNaya Raipur1 Nov 2000Hindi
GoaWesternPanaji30 May 1987Konkani, Marathi
GujaratWesternGandhinagar1 May 1960Gujarati
HaryanaNorthernChandigarh1 Nov 1966Hindi, Punjabi
Himachal PradeshNorthernShimla25 Jan 1971Hindi, English
Jammu and KashmirNorthernSrinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)26 Jan 1950Urdu
JharkhandEasternRanchi15 Nov 2000Hindi, Urdu
KarnatakaSouthernBangalore1 Nov 1956Kannada
KeralaSouthernThiruvananthapuram1 Nov 1956Malayalam
Madhya PradeshCentralBhopal1 Nov 1956Hindi
MaharashtraWesternMumbai1 May 1960Marathi
ManipurNorth-EasternImphal21 Jan 1972Meitei, English
MeghalayaNorth-EasternShillong21 Jan 1972English, Khasi
MizoramNorth-EasternAizawl20 Feb 1987English, Hindi, Mizo
NagalandNorth-EasternKohima1 Dec 1963English
OdishaEasternBhubaneswar26 Jan 1950Odia
PunjabNorthernChandigarh1 Nov 1966Punjabi
RajasthanNorthernJaipur1 Nov 1956Hindi, English
SikkimNorth-EasternGangtok16 May 1975English, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil NaduSouthernChennai26 Jan 1950Tamil, English
TelanganaSouthernHyderabad2 Jun 2014Telugu, Urdu[38]
TripuraNorth-EasternAgartala21 Jan 1972Bengali, Kokborok, English
Uttar PradeshCentralLucknow26 Jan 1950Hindi, Urdu
UttarakhandCentralDehradun9 Nov 2000Hindi, Sanskrit
West BengalEasternKolkata26 Jan 1950Bengali, Nepali, Hindi, Urdu, Santali, Odia and Punjabi
Union territories
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair Hindi, English
Chandigarh Chandigarh English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Silvassa Gujarati, Hindi
Daman and Diu Daman English, Gujarati, Hindi, Konkani
Delhi New Delhi Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu
Lakshadweep Kavaratti English, Hindi
Puducherry Pondicherry English, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu

Last Updated on : March 19, 2018


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