Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) literally translated as "Northern Province" in English is a state situated in northern India. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and Kanpur is economic and industrial capital of U.P.
The state is surrounded by the country of Nepal and Uttarakhand to the north, Delhi and Haryana to the northwest, Rajasthan to the west, Madhya Pradesh to the southwest, Bihar to the east and Jharkhand to the southeast.
Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and plays a significant role in defining the present date Uttar Pradesh. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be traced back to the Aryan period when they arrived and started establishing settlements in the central country they called "Madhyadesh". Uttar Pradesh was ruled by numerous kingdoms in history. Uttar Pradesh saw the advent of Lord Buddha, around the middle of the 1st millennium BC, who spread the Buddhism religion. Lord Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh. During this time the region was under the Magadha rule. The rule subsequently moved on to the Nanda dynasty and then later to the Mauryas.
The historical background of the state is associated a lot with the beginning of the Muslim rule. This period saw the defeat of the Rajputs. The state's prosperity was at its peak during the Mughal rule, especially during the rule of Emperor Akbar. During the Mughal rule, the region saw the construction of some magnificent monuments whose names have been engraved in the history forever.
Facts on Uttar Pradesh
Some quick facts on Uttar Pradesh are given below.
Geography and Climate of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh has a total area of 243,286 sq km and is situated in the northern part of India sharing international borders with Nepal. The Himalayas are located in the north part of the state and the plains cover most of the state. U.P. can be separated into three different hypsographical regions. The first one is the Himalayan region in the North. It has an extremely rugged and varied terrain. The topography varies to elevation ranging from 300m to 5000m. The second is the Gangetic Plain in the centre. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and a flat landscape which is dotted by numerous lakes, rivers, etc. The third are the Vindhya Hills and Plateau in the south. It has a hard rock Strata and a diverse topography of plains, hills, valleys and plateau. Water is limited in this region. The state shares its borders with the following states in India:
The major rivers of Uttar Pradesh are the Yamuna, Ganges, Ghaghara and Sarayu. Other than agricultural importance, these rivers bear a lot of spiritual significance. The weather of the state has primarily subtropical features. The state experiences four seasons and has a humid temperate climate.
Uttar Pradesh has a tropical monsoon type climate, with variations in altitudes. The Himalayan region is cold, while the weather in the plains varies in different seasons. The state has three distinct seasons. The winter season is from October to February; the summer season is from March to Mid-June; the rainy season is from June to September.
Rainfall in the plains is heaviest in the east with floods becoming a recurring problem, causing damage to crops, property and life. Summers are Hot and dry, with average temperature of 45°C accompanied by dust laden winds. Monsoons receive around 85 percent of the average annual rainfall of 990 mm. There is slight fall in temperature on rainy days. Winters are cold with temperatures dropping down to 4 °C and fog disrupts conditions in some areas of the state.
Economy of Uttar Pradesh
Society and Culture
The culture and the roots of the state's society lie in the roots of the traditions, literature, art and history of the state. Uttar Pradesh has a multi-hued culture which has flourished in the course of time. It has been blessed with much cultural diversity. The state has various holy shrines and pilgrim places which are visited by devotees. The two pious rivers, Ganga and Yamuna which flow through these states are mentioned in the Indian mythology.
Uttar Pradesh is one of the top tourist destinations in India. The city of Agra holds one of the Seven Wonders of the World, Taj Mahal. Varanasi is considered to be one of the oldest cities in the world. The Kumbh Mela takes place in U.P. where over ten million Hindu pilgrims gather together to bath in the holy river. It is declared as the largest religious gathering of human beings in the world.
The state has an ancient dance and music tradition. Kathak which is a classical dance form grew and flourished here. The folk heritage includes songs called rasiya, which represent the divine love of Radha and Shri Krishna. Other folk dances or theater forms are Raslila, Ramlila, Nautanki, Khayal, Qawwali, etc
Religious practices and festivals are an integral part of the society and culture of the state, as they are across India. Many festivals are celebrated in the state irrespective of caste and creed. The most important Hindu festivals are Diwali, Holi, Dussehra, Navratri, Eid, Mahavir Jayanti and Buddha Jayanti amongst others.
A number of texts and hymns of Vedic literature were composed in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The texts comprises of the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and also the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The state is sometimes referred as the "Hindi heartland of India". Hindi became the official language in the language Act of 1951. In 1989 an amendment to the act made Urdu as another native language of U.P. The major native languages of the state are Awadhi, Braj Bhasha, Bundeli, Kannauji and Khariboli.
Demographic of Uttar Pradesh
As of March 1, 2011, the state of UP is home to more than 199.5 million people which makes it the top-ranking state in the country in terms of population. If the state were considered as a distinct nation, it would have ranked as the fifth most populated country in the globe, just after Indonesia, USA, India and China. As laid down by the census performed in 2001, the population of the state is represented by the following communities:
- Approximately 80% are Hindus
- About 18% are Muslims
- Other communities include Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and Christians.
In addition, the popular tourist destinations include Ayodhya (the birthplace of Lord Rama), Jhansi, Lalitpur (the place which houses the earliest Vishnu mandirs in India), Mathura (the birthplace of Lord Krishna), Moradabad, Meerut, Bareilly, Aligarh, Muzaffarnagar, Ghaziabad, and Noida.
Uttar Pradesh houses Agra which is famous all over the world for the Taj Mahal. This historic monument is a symbol of love and one of the Seven Wonders of the World and a world heritage site as well. The biggest city in Uttar Pradesh is Kanpur which is famous for its leather industry.
Given below are the names of the prominent metropolitan cities in Uttar Pradesh.
Divisions of Uttar Pradesh
|Allahabad Division||Faizabad Division||Mirzapur Division|
|Agra Division||Basti Division||Kanpur Division|
|Bareilly Division||Jhansi Division||Saharanpur Division|
|Aligarh Division||Devipatan Division||Meerut Division|
|Chitrakoot Division||Lucknow Division||Varanasi Division|
|Azamgarh Division||Gorakhpur Division||Moradabad Division.|
Districts of Uttar Pradesh
Given below are the names of the 75 districts of the state:
|Firozabad||Sant Kabir Nagar||Jalaun||Hapur|
|Aligarh||Chitrakoot||Auraiya||Sant Ravidas Nagar|
|Pratapgarh||Ambedkar Nagar||Lakhimpur Kheri||Muzaffarnagar|
|Shahjahanpur||Kushinagar||Gautam Buddha Nagar|
Tourism in Uttar Pradesh
The top tourist attractions in Uttar Pradesh are as follows:
|Taj Mahal||Agra Fort||Ayodhya|
Education in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is home to some of the most reputed educational institutes in the world. Like most of the other developed states in India Uttar Pradesh too has contributed significantly towards the education of the country. The standard of Uttar Pradesh Education is ranked among the best in the country.
The Uttar Pradesh Government has made numerous investments at all the different levels of education in the last few years. The Uttar Pradesh Government has also appreciated and recognized the role of the private sector in enhancing the educational scenario of the state.
Most of the schools in Uttar Pradesh use English as the medium of instruction however there are also few schools in the state that follow Hindi as a medium of instruction. Almost 80 percent of the schools in Uttar Pradesh are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or Council for Indian Schools Certificate Examinations (ICSE). More Details...
Government and Politics of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh sends the biggest number of legislators to the Parliament. The state contributes 80 seats to Lok Sabha and 31 seats to Rajya Sabha in the Indian Parliament. The state has been called as India's under-achiever, because it provided India with eight prime ministers while it still remained a poor state.
The Government of Uttar Pradesh is a bicameral legislature in India. It is a democratically elected body which is headed by the Governor of the state. The Governor of Uttar Pradesh is elected for a period of five years. The governor who is the ceremonial head of the state appoints the chief minister and the council of ministers. Although the Governor is the head of the state but the day to day functioning of Uttar Pradesh politics is managed by the Chief Minister and the council of ministers.
The Governor of Uttar Pradesh is Shri. Banwari Lal Joshi. The current Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh is Mr. Akhilesh Yadav. He represents the Samajwadi Party. The council of ministers comprises ministers of state, cabinet Ministers and deputy ministers. The council of ministers is assisted by the Governor's secretary who is the head of the Secretariat. More Details...
Hotels in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is a union of culture and nature. As a result, people come to this state throughout the year. There are many tourist as well as religious places in the state which are visited by thousands of tourist every year. To accommodate the tourists and travellers, Uttar Pradesh has many hotels which cater to all kind of travellers. There are budget hotels, mid-range hotels to luxurious five star hotels and resorts. So, accommodation in Uttar Pradesh is not so difficult. Some of the popular hotels in Uttar Pradesh are:
- The Oberoi Amarvilas, Agra
- Trident, Agra
- Radisson Blu Agra Taj East Gate
- Hotel Rivatas by Ideal, Varanasi
- Vivanta by Taj - Gomti Nagar, Lucknow
- The Continental Clarks Inn, Lucknow
- Hotel Yatrik, Allahabad
- Brijwasi Lands Inn, Mathura
- Clarks Inn Bareilly
- Godwin Hotel, Meerut
- Little Chef Hotel, Kanpur
Fairs and Festivals in Uttar Pradesh
Deva mela, Barabanki is annually held at Deva, 10 km. from Barabanki at the revered shrine of the Haji Waris Ali Shah. It is held in the months of October and November; Deva mela at Barabanki show-cases the spirit of communal harmony in Uttar Pradesh and India. It features games, music, poetry conferences and great shopping opportunities. But it is fundamentally a religious fair, and attracts devotees from all over India, Pakistan and from parts of the Middle East as well. Deva mela, Barabanki is primarily a Muslim religious occasion. The Urs or commemoration of the sacred shrine of the Sufi saint Haji Waris Ali Shah is attended by devoted Muslims from every corner of India. Other most famous festivals in Uttar Pradesh are:
|Diwali||Buddha Jayanti||Ram Navami|
|Dashehra||Mahavir Jayanti||Krishna Janmashtami|
|Eid||Guru Nanak Jayanti||Mahashivratri|
Last Updated on : 03/07/2013