Telangana became the 29th state of India on 2 June 2014. It was previously a part of the state that was earlier known as Andhra Pradesh. Before India became independent it was included in the state of Hyderabad, which comprised two divisions, namely, Warangal and Medak. At that time the region was governed by the Nizams. The region has been in news recently as the focal point of a tussle between the erstwhile state of Andhra Pradesh and the national administration - while the Union Government has agreed to the creation of the new state, Andhra Pradesh has opposed it on grounds of territorial integrity. The region, as per the 2011 Census, has a population of 3, 52,86,757, which accounted for 41.6% of the population of Andhra Pradesh.
|Facts on Telangana|
|Date of Formation||Jun 2, 2014|
|Coordinates||18° N 79° E|
|High Court||High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad|
|Males Population (2011)||17,704,078|
|Females Population (2011)||17,489,900|
|No. of District||10|
|Forests & National Park||Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary|
|Neighbours State||Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Karnataka|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||66.50%|
|Females per 1000 males||1010|
List of districts in Telangana
Following is a list of the districts that will make up the province of Telangana:
History of Formation of Telangana
The movement to create a separate state of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh had started long back. There had been several movements but the most important ones happened during 1969, 1972 and 2009. Over the years, the movement only gathered a lot of steam.
The process of creating the separate state of Telangana was initiated on 9 December 2009 with a formal announcement from the Indian Government. However, as a mark of protest against this decision, MLAs and MPs from the Rayalseema and Coastal Andhra areas tendered their resignations.
These regions also saw some violent protest after the said announcement. As a result of all these, the Indian government was forced to put the process on the backburner on 23 December 2009. The Telangana movement, however, continued unabated in Hyderabad as well as other districts of the region.
However, the process began yet again on 30 July 2013 when the Congress party decided to plead with the Indian Government to create the new state of Telangana. It was decided that Hyderabad would continue to be the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for the next decade. The process met with the approval of the Union Cabinet on 3 October 2013.
A Group of Ministers (GoM) draft bill on Telangana was approved by the Indian Government on 5 December 2013, following which the bill was submitted to the Parliament so that both the houses could vote on the same. The 15th Lok Sabha voted in favour of creating a new state on 18 February 2014 and the Rajya Sabha followed suit on 20 February 2014.
Pranab Mukherjee, the President of India, provided his consent to the decision on 1 March 2014 and the Gazette notification for the same was brought out on the same day. It was announced by the Indian Government on 4 March 2014 that the new state of Telangana would be created and hence it was formed on 2 June 2014.
Geography of Telangana
Boundaries: The state of Telangana is surrounded in its northwestern and northern directions by Maharashtra. Karnataka encircles the region towards the west and Chhattisgarh lies to its northeastern direction. To the east of Telangana is Odisha.
Span: In all, the region covers an area spanning 1,33,103 km2.
Rivers: The most important rivers of this province are Musi, Krishna, Manjira and Godavari.
Cities: The largest cities of Telangana are Hyderabad, Nizamabad, Warangal and Karimnagar.
Telangana has 10 districts and the following table shows their respective population as per the 2011 Census.
As per the 2011 census figures, the population of Telangana stands at 3, 51, 93,978. The number of male and female population is 1, 77, 04,078 and 2, 46, 48,731 respectively. The state has a total area of 1, 33,103 kilometre squares and the density of population is 296 per square kilometre. Further, the total literacy rate in the districts of Andhra is 66 percent.
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in Telangana. Crops like cotton, mango and tobacco are locally grown in the state. Two important rivers, Krishna and Godavari also offer irrigation facilities in the state. In the fiscal year 2012-13, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Telangana was Rs 1,96,182 crore. Nagarjun Sagar Dam and Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects are the multi-state irrigation projects in the state. With a focus on the informative technology and biotechnology, Telangana is one of the top IT exporting states of India. With the presence of the coal reserves in Singaerni Collieries, Telangana is also considered a mineral-rich state. In fiscal year 2012-13, the GSDP for agriculture and allied was Rs 27,450 crore and for industrial sector was Rs 54, 687 crore.
The bus service in Telangana is managed by the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) which operates thousands of buses all over the state. The buses ply in different parts of the state including villages as there is a huge network of roads which offer feasibility and connectivity to different parts of the state. The state falls on the South Central Railway. The two main divisions of South Central railway Secunderabad and Hyderabad fall in this state. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is the largest airport in the state which is also the busiest airport in the country. The government has plans to construct new airports in Kothagudem and Karimnagar and upgrade the existing airports - Ramagundam Airport, Nizamabad Airport and Warangal Airport.
Society and Culture:
The majority of the state’s population speaks Telugu. Urdu is also widely spoken in some parts of the state. The culture of the state is a combination of the customs from the Persians, embedded during the period of the Mughals and the Nizams. Many Hindu festivals such as Deepawali, Sri Ramanavami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Maha Shivaratri and Muslim festivals such as Bakra-Eid and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated in this state. Bataukamma festival and Lashkar Bonalu are the state festivals of Telangana.
Telugu is the official language of Telangana, although some people claim that the Telangana Telugu is different than the general Telugu spoken in Andhra Pradesh. The Telugu language includes words from Sanskrit, Urdu and English language. Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad before 1948, but after the Hyderabad state joined the Republic of India, it became the language of the government. Telugu is also the medium of instruction in the schools and colleges of the state.
Government and Politics:
Telangana is also governed by Parliamentary system like in other states. The system is divided into three different branches. The Executive authority lies with the Council of Ministers, headed by the Chief Minister of state. There are 119 members in the legislative assembly and 40 members in the legislative council of the state. A system of lower courts and the High Court of Hyderabad takes care of the judicial system of Telangana. The major political parties in the state are Telugu Desam Party (TDP), Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) and Indian National Congress (INC). Telangana came into being after Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by Parliament for carving out the Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh, in February 2014. The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014.
Besides many private and public primary and secondary schools, there are also many higher education institutions and universities in the state. The schools are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education CBSE or ICSE or the state board. There are research institutions, colleges and universities which offer professional education in different fields including science, arts, humanities, law, medicine etc. The University of Hyderabad, International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) in Hyderabad, and National Institute of Technology (NIT) in Warangal are some of the important educational institutions in the state. The Electronics Corporation of India Limited and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Hyderabad are some famous research institutes in the state.
Why is it called Telangana?
It is said that both the name Telangana as well as the language in circulation in the state has come from the words Trilinga or Trilinga Desa, which means the country of the three lingas. As per a Hindu legend, Shiva came down on three mountains called Kaleshwaram, Draksharama and Srisailam as a linga. These mountains basically acted as the borders of the region and are supposed to be situated somewhere between the rivers Godavari and Krishna. The word is also used in order to separate the Telugu- speaking region from the Marathi dominions and designate it as a part of the state of Hyderabad.
Why was Telangana created?
The supporters of Telangana have cited discrepancies and deprivation in many areas such as water resources distribution, jobs and allotments of budget as the basic reasons for creating a new state. The region used to contribute approximately 62% of the revenues generated in Andhra Pradesh. It has been stated that even though it had almost 69% of the catchment areas of both Godavari and Krishna, it received only around 19% of the benefit provided by the various irrigation projects. It has also been alleged that in majority of the years the state government did not spend the money allotted for the development of Telangana.
Professor Jayashankar has estimated that only 20% of government employees are recruited from the region. As far as the secretariat is concerned, the count goes down to around 10% and only 5% of the officers who lead various departments are from Telangana. He has also pointed out that in the 50 years of the state's existence, chief ministers from Telangana have served for only six-and-a-half years.
The proponents of Telangana have also pointed that the state legislature as well as the Lok Sabha has failed to honour the various agreements, promises and plans and this has left the state in a lurch of neglect, backwardness and exploitation.
Controversy and objection in creating Telangana
Ever since the creation of Telangana was announced, there was a lot of protest from various politicians in Andhra Pradesh. However, a major incident occurred on 13 February 2014 when the speaker Meira Kumar allowed the introduction of the bill at 1200 hours. A lot of slogans were being shouted and it was at this time that Lagadapati Rajagopal, the then Congress MP from the Vijaywada constituency, used pepper sprays. He, later, went on to say that he had used it in self defence since MPs from other states had attacked him. His actions caused a lot of disturbance to the proceedings of Lok Sabha and some members of the lower house of Parliament had to be hospitalised.
Several Andhra MPs also faced suspension from the Lok Sabha as a result of their actions. They were:
Indian National Congress
- Sabbam Hari
- A Sai Prathap
- Anantha Venkatarami Reddy
- Suresh Kumar Shetkar
- Rayapati Sambasiva Rao
- KRG Reddy
- SPY Reddy
- Bapi Raju Kanumuri
- M Sreenivasulu Reddy
- G Sukhender Reddy
- V Aruna Kumar
- Niramalli Sivaprasad
- K Narayana Rao
- Nimmala Kristappa
- M Rajamohan Reddy
- Y Jaganmohan Reddy
Effects of Telangana Creation
As per political experts there could be various effects of the creation of Telangana. The main argument of the supporters of this decision is that it would be easier to administer a smaller state like Telangana. However, judging by the way Jharkhand has been governed since its creation such an argument may not hold much ground. It is also expected that the creation of Telangana would lead to further instability in India as similar other movement such as Gorkhaland, Vidarbha and Bodoland will only gain ground.
|Sr. No.||District||District HQ||Population (2011)||Growth||Sex Ratio||Literacy||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
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Last Updated on : December 19, 2014