History of the Formation of Telangana
The movement to create a separate state of Telangana had started long back. There had been several movements but the most important ones happened during 1969, 1972 and 2009. Over the years, the movement gathered a lot of steam.
The process of creating the separate state of Telangana was initiated on December 9, 2009 with a formal announcement from the Indian government. However, in protest, MLAs and MPs from the Rayalseema and Coastal Andhra areas tendered their resignations.
These regions also saw some violent protests after the said announcement. As a result of this, the Indian government was forced to put the process on the back burner in the December of 2009. The Telangana movement, however, continued unabated in Hyderabad as well as other districts of the region.
The process began yet again on July 30, 2013 when the Congress party decided to plead with the Indian government to create the new state of Telangana. It was decided that Hyderabad would continue to be the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for the next decade. The process met with the approval of the Union Cabinet on October 3, 2013.
A Group of Ministers (GoM) draft bill on Telangana was approved by the Indian government on December 5, 2013, following which the bill was submitted to the Parliament so that both the houses could vote on the same. The 15th Lok Sabha voted in favour of creating a new state on February 18, 2014 and the Rajya Sabha followed suit on February 20, 2014.
Pranab Mukherjee, the President of India, provided his consent to the decision on March 1, 2014 and the Gazette Notification for the same was brought out on the same day. It was announced by the Government of India on March 4, 2014 that the new state of Telangana would be created and hence it was formed on June 2, 2014.
After two years, in October 2016, 21 new districts were created in the state. The districts included Siddipet, Jangaon, Vikarabad, Jayashankar, Jagtial, Peddapally, Warangal (Rural), Yadadri, Kamareddy, Medak, Mancheriyal, Mahabubabad, Rajanna, Asifabad, Kothagudem, Wanaparthy, Suryapet, Nirmal, Nagarkurnool, Jogulamba and Medchal/Malkajgiri.
The other ten districts in the state include Hyderabad, Adilabad, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal, Nizamabad, Ranga Reddy,Khammam and Nalgonda.
Along with the districts, revenue divisions, the mandals and other administrative units were also reorganised.
|Facts on Telangana|
|Date of Formation||2 June, 2014|
|Coordinates||18° N 79° E|
|High Court||High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad|
|Population (2011 Census)||35,193,978|
|Males Population (2011)||17611633|
|Females Population (2011)||17392041|
|No. of District||31|
|Mandal Praja Parishads||438|
|Towns (as per 2011 Census)||158|
|Forests & National Park||Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary|
|Neighbour States||Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Karnataka|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||66.46%|
|Females per 1000 males||1010|
Geography of Telangana
Boundaries: The state of Telangana is surrounded in its northwestern and northern directions by Maharashtra. Karnataka encircles the region towards the west and Chhattisgarh lies to its northeastern direction. To the east of Telangana is Odisha.
Span: In all, the region covers an area spanning 112,077 square kilometers.
Rivers: The most important rivers of this province are Musi, Krishna, Manjira and Godavari.
Cities: The largest cities of Telangana are Hyderabad, Nizamabad, Warangal and Karimnagar.
As per the 2011 census figures, the population of Telangana stands at 35,193,978. The number of male and female population is 1, 77, 04,078 and 2, 46, 48,731 respectively. The state has a total area of 1, 33,103 kilometre squares and the density of population is 307 per square kilometre.
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in Telangana. Crops like cotton, mango and tobacco are locally grown in the state. In the fiscal year 2015-16, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Telangana was Rs 4.7 lakh crore. Nagarjun Sagar Dam and Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects are the multi-state irrigation projects in the state. With a focus on information technology and biotechnology, Telangana is one of the top IT exporting states of India. With the presence of the coal reserves in Singaerni Collieries, Telangana is also considered a mineral-rich state.
The bus service in Telangana is managed by the Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC). The state is operated under the South Central Railway. The two main divisions of South Central Railway – Secunderabad and Hyderabad – are located in Telangana. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is the largest airport in the state, which is also the busiest airport of the country. The government has plans to construct new airports in Kothagudem and Karimnagar and upgrade the existing airports - Ramagundam Airport, Nizamabad Airport and Warangal Airport.
Society and Culture:
The majority of the state’s population speaks Telugu. Urdu is also widely spoken in some parts of the state. The culture is a combination of Persian customs dating back to the period of the Mughals and the Nizams. Many Hindu festivals such as Deepawali, Ramanavami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Maha Shivaratri and Muslim festivals such as Bakra-Eid and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated in this state. Bataukamma festival and Lashkar Bonalu are the state festivals of Telangana.
Telugu is the official language of Telangana, although some people claim that the Telangana Telugu is different than the Telugu which is spoken in Andhra Pradesh. The Telugu language includes words from Sanskrit, Urdu and English language. Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad before 1948, but after the Hyderabad state joined the Republic of India, Telugu became the official language of the state. Telugu is also the medium of instruction in schools and colleges.
Government and Politics:
Telangana has a parliamentary system of government. The system is divided into three different branches. The executive authority lies with the Council of Ministers, headed by the Chief Minister of the state. There are 119 members in the legislative assembly and 40 members in the legislative council of the state. A system of lower courts and the High Court of Hyderabad take care of the judicial system of Telangana. The major political parties in the state are Telugu Desam Party (TDP), Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) and Indian National Congress (INC). Telangana came into being after Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 Bill was passed by the Parliament for carving out the Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh, in February 2014. The state of Telangana was officially formed on June 2, 2014.
Why is it called Telangana?
It is said that both the name “Telangana” as well as the language has come from the words “Trilinga”, or “Trilinga Desa”, which means “the country of the three lingas”. As per a Hindu legend, Shiva came down on three mountains called Kaleshwaram, Draksharama and Srisailam as a linga. These mountains basically acted as the borders of the region and are supposed to be situated somewhere between the rivers Godavari and Krishna. The word is also used in order to separate the Telugu- speaking region from the Marathi dominions and designate it as a part of the state of Hyderabad.
Why was Telangana created?
The supporters of Telangana cited discrepancies and deprivation in many areas such as water resources distribution, jobs and allotments of budget as the basic reasons for creating a new state. The region used to contribute approximately 62% of the revenues generated in Andhra Pradesh. It has been stated that even though it had almost 69% of the catchment areas of both Godavari and Krishna, it received only around 19% of the benefit provided by the various irrigation projects. It has also been alleged that in majority of the years the state government did not spend the money allotted for the development of Telangana.
Professor Jayashankar estimated that only 20% of government employees were recruited from the region. As far as the secretariat is concerned, the count goes down to around 10%, and only 5% of the officers who led various departments were from Telangana. He has also pointed out that in the 50 years of the state's existence, chief ministers from Telangana have served for only six-and-a-half years.
The proponents of Telangana have also pointed that the state legislature as well as the Lok Sabha has failed to honour the various agreements, promises and plans and this has left the state in a lurch of neglect, backwardness and exploitation.
Controversy and objection in creating Telangana
The creation of Telangana resulted in protests from various politicians in Andhra Pradesh. However, a major incident occurred on February 13, 2014 when the speaker Meira Kumar allowed the introduction of the bill at 1200 hours. Slogans were raised and it was at this time that Lagadapati Rajagopal, the then-Congress MP from the Vijaywada constituency, used pepper sprays. He later went on to say that he had used it in self-defense since MPs from other states had attacked him. His actions caused a lot of disturbance to the proceedings of Lok Sabha and some members of the lower house of Parliament had to be hospitalised.
Several Andhra MPs also faced suspension from the Lok Sabha as a result of their actions. They were:
- Sabbam Hari
- A Sai Prathap
- Anantha Venkatarami Reddy
- Suresh Kumar Shetkar
- Rayapati Sambasiva Rao
- KRG Reddy
- SPY Reddy
- Bapi Raju Kanumuri
- M Sreenivasulu Reddy
- G Sukhender Reddy
- V Aruna Kumar
- Niramalli Sivaprasad
- K Narayana Rao
- Nimmala Kristappa
- M Rajamohan Reddy
- Y Jaganmohan Reddy
|Sr. No.||District||District HQ||Population (2011)||Growth||Sex Ratio||Literacy||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
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Last Updated on : March 9, 2017