Akbar Biography


Akbar Biography

Jalaludin Mohammad Akbar or Akbar The Great was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun. He was born on 15th October 1542 in the Rajput fortress of Umarkot, Sind. When he was born Humayun was in exile He was raised by his uncle Askari and his wife in Afghanistan. In his youth he learnt to hunt, run and fight but he never learnt to read and write,
but was a well informed ruler with refined taste in every field. He ascended the throne on 14th February 1556, when his father Humayun died of an accident. At that time Akbar was barely 13 years old and in his initial days he was under the able guidance of one of his father's minister Bairam Khan

After ascending the throne he decided to destroy the power of Sikander Shah Suri, son of Sher Shah Suri, in Punjab, and left the city of Delhi under Tardi Beg Khan. He succeded in this and Sikander Shah withdrew from the territories, but in Delhi, sensing the opportunity, another Hindu ruler Hemu attacked Delhi and Tardi Beg Khan fled the city. Akbar met the forces of Hemu at the second battle of Panipat and defeated him. He was a very efficient ruler and tried to bring almost whole of the India under his rule. For this he adopted various strategies, at some places he used his military power while at other he used his administrative skills. He formed marital alliances with many Hindu states. After marriage he did not force his Hindu wives to convert to Islam instead encouraged them to practice their own religion. He respected all the religions of the world. According to him all the religions lead us to one God. His secular outlook resulted in the formation of a new religion called Din-e-Elahi, Faith of the Divine. He built a building called Ibadat Khana (house of worship), where he encouraged religious debate

He had Nine Navaratnas or nine jewels at his court, this include: Abul Fazel, Faizi, Tansen, Birbal, Raja Todar Mal, Raja Man Singh, Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, Fakir Aziao-Din and Mullah Do Piazza. The last years of his reign were not peaceful. His son Salim, later known as Emperor Jahangir, rebelled against him. He died in Agra, and was buried in Sikandra, where his magnificent mausoleum stands today.

Facts and Information about Akbar



Full nameAbu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar I
Known asAkbar the Great
Regin11 February 1556 - 27 October 1605
Born14 October 1542 (Umerkot, Sindh)
Died27 October 1605 (Fatehpur Sikri, Agra)
Buried atSikandra, Agra
ReligionIslam, Din-e-Illahi
DynastyMughal Dynasty
Coronation14 February 1556
PredeccessorHumayun
SuccessorJahangir
RegentBairam Khan (1556-1561)
ConsortRuqaiya Sultan Begum
WivesHeer Kunwari, Hira Kunwari, Harka Bai, Jodha Bai

Salima Sultan Begum
HouseHouse of Timur
FatherHumayun
MotherHamida Banu Begum
GrandfatherBabur
GrandmotherMaham Begum
ChildrenJahangir, Daniyal, Sultan Murad Mirza, Hassan, Hussain
MarriedAkbar married Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, his first cousin, at Kabul in November 1551. She was his chief consort.
The young emperorAfter Humayun's death, the 13-year-old Akbar was crowned in Kalanaur, Punjab by Bairam Khan. Until Akbar became capable to rule independetly, Bairam Khan decided on state affairs.
Reclaiming DelhiOn 5 November 1556, Hemu and the Sur army were defeated by Akbar's army that was being led by Bairam Khan at the Second Battle of Panipat.
Dismissing Bairam KhanOn the advice of his foster mother, Maham Anaga, and his relatives, Bairam Khan was dismissed by Akbar in 1560.
Expansion into Central IndiaIn 1564, the Gondwana kingdom was conquered by the Mughal forces.
Battle of HaldighatiIn 1576 the Mughals defeated Pratap Singh, the son and successor of Udai Singh, at the Battle of Haldighati.
Conquering BaluchistanBaluchistan was also conquered by the Mughal Empire.
The Safavids and KandaharIn 1558, Tahmasp I, the Safavid emperor, surrouded Kandahar and overthrew its Mughal governor.
TaxationAkbar adopted decentraized annual assessment of taxation, but it failed in 1580. A system called the Dahsala was started instead.

Akbar was perhaps the first to adpot a target-based remuneration system for his revenue officials. They were to receive only three-quarters of their salary, the rest being payable only when the revenue targets were met.
CapitalIn 1599, Agra was made the capital of the kingdom.
CoinageCoins introduced by Akbar were round and square, having dotted borders, floral motifs, and quatrefoil. They were also designed in the 'mehrab' shape.
Patron of scholarsAkbar patronized Muslim scholars like Tahir Muhammad Thattvi and Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi.
Din-i-IlahiAkbar propounded a syncretic religion, the Din-i Ilahi in 1582 AD. Being far ahead of its time, the idea failed.
Relation with HindusAkbar declared that there would be no death penalty for people converting to Hinduism.

Akbar celebrated Diwali. Brahmans were allowed to wear strings round their wrists by way of blessing. Beef was renounced and the sale of meat was forbidden on certain days.
Mention in literatureAin-i-Akbari and Akbarnama by Abul Fazal. Books by Badayuni, Shaikhzada Rashidi and Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi.

The Akbarnama is a biography of Akbar in Persian.
DeathHe died on or about 27 October 1605. His burial chamber was made at a mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra.
Films and televisionJodhaa Akbar

Mughal-e-Azam

Akbar-Birbal (TV serial)

Akbar the Great (TV serial)

Jodha Akbar (TV serial)
FictionThe Enchantress of Florence by Salman Rushdie (2008)
Video gamesCivilization 4: Beyond the Sword

Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties


Blogs about Akbar
The Tomb of Atgah Khan, Delhi
The Tomb of Atgah Khan, an Allegiant Noble in Akbar’s Court : Location: Nizamuddin Basti, New Delhi Among the unsung forts of Delhi, yet another ornate structure that calls for attention is the tomb of Atgah Khan. Even though Atgah Khan had an important role to play in history, not many of us are aware about who this noble man was. To begin with, Shamsuddin Muhammad Atgah Khan was the foster-father and chief advisor of the Mughal emperor Jallaluddin Akbar. He was the husband of one of…
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Khan-i-Khanan Tomb, Delhi
The Desolate Tomb of Khan-i-Khanan (Rahim) : Location: Mathura Road, Nizamuddin area, Delhi Most of us have been taught about the famous poet Rahim's couplets as a part of the Hindi curriculum in our school time. But how many of us actually know that this learned man, whose literary works still glorify the nation, lies buried in a desolate tomb in Delhi? Not many, perhaps. Mirza Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan was a great scholar and a gem of Emperor Akbar's court. He was…
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The Akbar-Birbal Stories We Know and Love – History as Anecdote – Part 4 : After part 1, 2 and 3, I consider how it is that the Akbar-Birbal stories have traveled across time. I do this to see if the events as they as showcased in the stories actually happened, or, are entirely fictitious? My opinion is that these stories have been coloured over time, especially if we consider the folk form, and have twisted and turned into how we know these stories today. To begin with the history…
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The Akbar-Birbal Stories We Know and Love – History as Anecdote – Part 3 : I left part 1 and 2 talking about the pattern of the Akbar-Birbal stories that we know and love. I wondered why they seemed to show Akbar in a poor light and highlighted some among many of Akbar's activities which showed religious tolerance. I also mentioned Birbal and Akbar's closeness to his once-discovered courtier, who was Akbar's only Hindu courtier. So, is the one-upmanship displayed of Birbal over Akbar, as depicted in the stories, a…
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The Akbar-Birbal Stories We Know and Love – History as Anecdote – Part 1 : One day Akbar Badshah commanded Birbar [=Birbal], "Bring me a Muslim turned into a Hindu." Birbal asked for the respite of one week. The king agreed. When six days had passed, on the seventh day Birbar took a donkey to the river and busied himself in bathing it. It happened that Akbar Badshah too came to the river. He asked, "Oh Birbar, what are you doing?"  He submitted, "Refuge of the World, I am bathing…
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Last Updated on : February 1, 2014

     


     

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