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Home   »   Government & Politics   »   Atal Bihari Vajpayee Biography

Atal Bihari Vajpayee Biography

Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the 10th Prime Minister of India.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Atal Bihari Vajpayee (25 December 1924 – 16 August 2018) was an iconic leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), known for his cultural moderation, liberalism and political acumen. He became the Prime Minister of India thrice – first in 1996 when he served the term for 13 days, second in 1998 for a period of eleven months, and the third time in 1999 for a full term of five years. It was during his tenure that India successfully conducted nuclear tests at Pokhran. At the same time, renewed hopes for peace between India and Pakistan emerged with the start of the New Delhi-Lahore bus service. His government has been the only non-Congress government till date to stay in power for five years. Besides being a seasoned politician and outstanding parliamentarian, Atal Bihari Vajpayee was also a renowned poet and a highly popular personality across the political spectrum.

Vajpayee was conferred Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour, in 2015. The Modi Government has declared his birthday, i.e. 25 December, to be celebrated as Good Governance Day. Vajpayee died on August 16, 2018 after a prolonged illness.

Early Life

Atal Bihari Vajpayee was born in a middle-class Brahmin family to Krishna Devi and Krishna Bihari Vajpayee on December 25, 1924 in Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh). His father was a poet and a schoolteacher. Vajpayee did his schooling from the Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Gwalior. Later, he studied at Victoria College, Gwalior – now known as Laxmi Bai College – for his graduation. It was at Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College, Kanpur that Vajpayee completed his post-graduation in Political Science.

Joining as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) worker in 1939, Vajpayee became a pracharak (full-time worker) in 1947. He also worked for Rashtradharma Hindi monthly, Panchjanya Hindi weekly and the dailies Swadesh and Veer Arjun.

Vajpayee chose to stay a bachelor for his entire life. He adopted the daughter of longtime friends Rajkumari Kaul and BN Kaul and raised her as his own child.

Political Career

Atal Bihari Vajpayee began his career in politics as a freedom fighter. Later, he joined the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS), a Hindu right-wing political party, under the leadership of Dr Shyama Prasad Mookerjee. He became national secretary of BJS in charge of the Northern region.

As the new leader of BJS, Vajpayee was elected to the Lok Sabha for the first time in 1957 from Balrampur. He rose to become the national president of the Jana Sangh in 1968. Supported by his colleagues Nanaji Deshmukh, Balraj Madhok and L K Advani, Vajpayee took the Jana Sangh to greater glory.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee participated in the Total Revolution movement launched by Jayaprakash Narayan (JP) against the internal Emergency imposed by then prime minister Indira Gandhi in 1975. In 1977, Jana Sangh became a part of the Janata Party, the grand-alliance against the Congress (I) led Indira Gandhi government.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee became a Union Minister in 1977 when Morarji Desai-led Janata Party coalition came to power for the first time. He became the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Morarji Desai. As foreign minister, Vajpayee became the first person to deliver a speech at the United Nations General Assembly in Hindi. His career as a minister was short-lived as he resigned from his post following the resignation of Morarji Desai in 1979. But by then, Vajpayee had established himself as a political leader.

Vajpayee along with Lal Krishna Advani, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat and others from the BJS and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) formed the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1980. He became a strong critic of the Congress (I) government that followed the fall of Janata Party government.

Vajpayee did not support Operation Blue Star. He also raised his voice against the anti-Sikh violence after the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1984 by two of her Sikh bodyguards.

The BJP won two parliamentary seats in the 1984 elections. Vajpayee functioned as the BJP President and Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament. Known for his liberal views, Vajpayee bemoaned the demolition of the Babri Mosque on December 6, 1992 and declared it as the BJP’s “worst miscalculation”.

As Prime Minister of India

By 1984 elections, the BJP had established itself as an important political party in Indian politics. Vajpayee was sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of India following the 1996 General Elections, where the BJP emerged as the single largest party in the Lok Sabha. However, the government collapsed after only 13 days after his government could not gather support from other parties to obtain a majority. He, thus, became the shortest serving Prime Minister in India.

The BJP-led coalition government came back to power as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) in 1998. Vajpayee was again sworn in as the Prime Minister. Vajpayee’s second term as PM is known for Nuclear tests conducted at Pokhran desert in Rajasthan, in May 1998. Vajpayee also pushed for the peace process with Pakistan. He inaugurated the historic Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999. He also pitched for resolving the Kashmir dispute and other conflicts with Pakistan.

But Pakistan ditched India by launching Kargil War, wherein Pakistani soldiers infiltrated into the Kashmir Valley and captured border hilltops around the town of Kargil.

Indian army units, under Operation Vijay, fought Pakistani intruders braving heavy artillery shelling amidst extremely cold weather, and treacherous hilly terrain, and ultimately emerged victorious. However, Vajpayee’s government lasted only 13 months, as the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) withdrew its support to the government in mid-1999.

In the following election, however, the NDA came back with full majority and Vajpayee was able to complete five years (1999-2004) as a non-Congress PM in office for the first time. Atal Bihari Vajpayee took oath as the Prime Minister of India for the third time on October 13, 1999.

However, his third term also saw India yielding to terrorists when in December 1999, Indian Airlines flight IC 814 from Kathmandu to New Delhi was hijacked and taken to Kandahar, Afghanistan. The government had to release dreaded terrorists, including Maulana Masood Azhar, from prison to secure the freedom of passengers. On the brighter side, the Vajpayee government introduced many economic and infrastructural reforms, including encouraging the private sector and foreign investments. It also undertook National Highway Development Projects and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. Vajpayee adopted pro-business, free-market reforms approach to boost India’s economic development.

In March 2000, Vajpayee signed the Historic Vision Document during the visit of the then US President Bill Clinton. The Declaration incorporated several strategic issues, apart from pitching for expansion in trade and economic ties between the two countries.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee again tried for peace with Pakistan during the Agra summit with the then Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf, but the talks failed to achieve any breakthrough as Musharraf declined to leave aside the Kashmir issue.

The Atal Bihari Vajpayee regime also witnessed an attack on Indian Parliament on December 13, 2001, when Pakistan-supported terrorists stormed the Parliament building in Delhi. They were ultimately foiled in their attempts by the Indian security forces.

Vajpayee as PM was pained when communal riots broke out in Gujarat in 2002 after the Godhra train tragedy.


The 2004 General Election brought about the downfall of the NDA, which lost almost half its seats and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) assumed the reins of power. Vajpayee refused to take up the position of the Leader of the Opposition, paving the way for Lal Krishna Advani’s leadership of BJP.


Vajpayee had major health problems after suffering a stroke in 2009 which impaired his speech abilities. Since then his health become a major issue of concern. Later, he got confined to wheelchair and failed to recognise people. Vajpayee is also reported to have suffered from diabetes and dementia. On June 11, 2018, his health condition started getting worse and he was admitted to AIIMS, Delhi in critical condition. After remaining admitted for over 2 months, Vajpayee breathed his last on August 16, 2018 at 5:05 pm due to prolonged illness.

Awards & Achievements

  • Padma Vibhushan in 1992
  • D. Lit. from Kanpur University in 1993
  • Lokmanya Tilak Award in 1994
  • Best Parliamentarian Award in 1994
  • Bharat Ratna Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant Award in 1994
  • Bharat Ratna in 2015
  • Liberation War award (Bangladesh Muktijuddho Sanmanona) in 2015

In 2015-16, the Government of India announced Atal Pension Yojana, a social security scheme for Indian citizens in the unorganized sector, in his honour. Institutes in several states instituted chairs in various subjects in the honour of his memory.