Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar Biography
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India was an excellent general and a wise ruler. He was born on 14th February 1483 and was a Chughtai Turk, descendant of king Taimur on his father’s side and Chengez Khan on his mother’s side. Thus conquest and efficient administration was in his blood.
He succeeded to the throne of Farghana, a small state in Central Asia, when his father Umar Sheikh Mirza died. At that time he was barely eleven years old. His initial years to throne were marked by continuous wars, battles and treaties. After sometime he lost his state and has to live in exile. Few years later fate again smiled on him. His enemies fought among themselves and he converted this opportunity in his favor, and captured the kingdom of present day Afghanistan. Babar was able to re conquer his home state Farghana and Samarkand, but this happiness proved to be shortlived for him. As he was again driven out of his home by his Uzbeg enemies. He was invited to India by Rana Sanga and Daulat Khan Lodi, the Muslim Governor of Punjab, to fight against Ibrahim Lodi. After losing his empire in Central Asia, he found the invitation very lucrative, thus he invaded India. He was the first king to bring artillery to India. He met the forces of Ibrahim Lodi in the field of Panipat on 21st April 1526 and won this battle known in Indian history as the First battle of Panipat. This battle marked his conquest over Delhi. And changed the course of Indian history as well as Mughal empire forever. After this he fought another decisive battle with Rana Sanga in 1527, at Kanwaha. In this battle Rana Sanga was defeated and with this Babar became the unchallenged ruler of northern India.
Although he restrained from plundering and looting the cities of India, he conquered, he was not very religiously inclined and did not convert the people of India to Islam. His first act of commemorating victory in Agra, Uttar Pradesh was not any religious but aesthetic, a garden in Persian style, called Aram Bagh.
He had made himself the ruler of Punjab, Delhi and the Ganga plains as far as Bihar, before his death. He wrote an autobiography containing lively description of India. It is known as Tuzuk-I- Babari, and is written in Turkish. He died in 1530 and was succeeded by his son Humayun to the throne of Delhi.
Facts and Information about Babar
|Full Name||Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babar|
|Born||February 23, 1483 (Andijan, Mughalistan)|
|Died||December 26, 1530 (Agra, Mughal Empire)|
|Reign||30 April 1526 – 26 December 1530|
|Grandmother||Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan|
|Father||Umar Shaikh Mirza II, Amir of Farghana|
|Mother||Qutlugh Nigar Khanum|
|Wives||Aisha Sultan Begum, Zaynab Sultan Begum, Masuma Sultan Begum, Maham Begum, Dildar Begum, Gulnar Aghacha, Gulrukh Begum, Mubarika Yousefzai|
|About||Babar was a conqueror from Central Asia who established the Mughal dynasty in India. He was the first Mughal emperor.|
|Babarnama||It is an autobiography of Babar. It was originally written in the Chagatai language.
Later in 1589 it was translated to Persian language by Abdul Rahim, a Mughal courtier.
|Passion to kill people||Babar liked to cut heads off people and create pillars out of these. He affirmed this in his autobiography also.|
|Ascension||In 1495 Babar became the ruler of Farghana, succeeding his father.|
|Siege on Samarkand||In 1501, soon after Babar had laid siege on Samarkand, Muhammad Shaybani attacked and defeated him.|
|Formation of Mughal Empire||In 1519, Babar reached Chenab.
In 1524, Babar discovered that Daulat Khan Lodi was expelled by an Afghan Chief. Babar attacked the Chief and defeated him. Later he appointed Ala-ud-Din as Governor of Lahore.
|First battle of Panipat||On 20 April 1526 Babar met Ibrahim Lodi on the battleground of Panipat.
The battle of Panipat began on 21 April 1526. Ibrahim Lodi’s army was surrounded by Babar. Babar army opened fire and dealt huge damage. Lodi died during the battle.
The Lodi Dynasty ended with the death of Ibrahim Lodi.
|Death||Babar died on January 5, 1531. He was succeeded by Humayun. His body was moved to Kabul, Afghanistan.|
|Legacy||Under the influence of the Persian, culture Babar expanded the Persianate ethos in India.
In Uzbekistan, Babar is traeted like a national hero.
In October 2005, the Babar Cruise Missile was developed by Pakistan in his honor.
|Babri mosque||It is believed that the Rama Temple at Ayodhya was demolished by Babar. Later he built Babri Mosque at the same place.
On 6 December 1992, the Karsevaks of Ramajanmabhumi movement demolished the Babri Masjid.
|Monuments||Panipat Mosque, Jama Masjid, Babri Mosque|
Kamran Mirza, son
Askari Mirza, son
Hindal Mirza, son
Gulrang Begum, daughter
Gulbadan Begum, daughter
Gulchehra Begum, daughter
Altun Bishik, alleged son