Excavations at Kalibangan and Lothal feature the scientific planning of towns and building using standard burnt bricks, interlinked drainage system, wheel - turned ceramics, solid wheel carts and the use of copper and bronze in various products.

A great example of the mastery of Indians in the fields of mathematics, geometry and astronomy is the discovery of coins and concrete evidence of maritime trade. Indian mathematicians introduced the concept of zero. Mahaviracharya, the greatest Jain mathematician mentions the significance of zero. Brahmagupta is another famous Indian Mathematician who was the first one to solve the Pellian equation, Aryabhatta introduced the value of the mathematical constant, Pi. The Bakhsali manuscript, gives rules, examples and solutions to geometric, algebraic and arithmetical problems. Bhadrabahu was another Indian mathematician who solved the Pythagorean Theorem.

Amongst the modern scientists and mathematicians S.N. Bose is famous for Bose-Einstein statistics; Meghnad Saha, for Saha theory of thermal ionization, Ramanujam for Number Theory; Jayant Narlikar for his Theories of the evolution of the Universe, C.V. Raman for his "Raman Effect".

After attaining independence in the year 1947, India introduced a program of using modern science and technology for national development. At present, it spends about 0.83 percent of its GNP on scientific and technological development.

To know more about science and technology in India go through the following links:

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Last Updated on : January 30, 2014