Ghiasuddin Balban Biography
Ghiasuddin Balban Biography
Ghiasuddin Balban is the greatest Sultan of the Slave dynasty and an extremely shrewd military chief. He belonged to the Ilbari tribe of a well-to-do Turk family. But unfortunately he was captured by the Mongols and sold to Khwajah Jamal-ud-din Basri in Baghdad and later brought to Delhi by Iltutmush, who purchased him as as lave.
From the very beginning he was favored by master and soon became one of the Chalgan(forty chief nobles of the court). He gradually gained power during the rule of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud and in early 1266, he became the Sultan after the death of Nasir-ud-din.
As a Sultan, Ghiasuddin Balban ruled his territory with an iron hand. The Chalgan’s had become very strong during the twenty-year rule of Nasir-ud-din and were jealous of Balban’s ascent to the throne. So to curb the power of the revolting Chalgans he either killed them or banished them to far off places. The Mewatis, Jats and Rajputs had also gained power and revolted against the government. He ordered the royal forces to crush them.
Ghiasuddin Balban believed that a king is the deputy of God on earth and had unparalleled powers. His court was very disciplined and nobody could even dare to smile in his court. He even established an intelligence department and posted spies in different parts of the country to gather information about the conspiracies against him.
Ghiasuddin Balban very efficiently put down rebellions that surrounded during his reign. He deployed the fierce Afghan troops in the Doab region to crush the rebellion there. In Rohilakhand, he terrorized the rebellions by burning villages and killing the entire male population. During the last days of Balban’s reign, the governor of Bengal Tughral Baig resisted against his rule. As the king had grown old and Bengal was quite far away from Delhi, he sent an army to fight against the rebellion leader. The army was defeated and finally West Bengal was re-conquered only when the army was led by Balban. He then nominated his son Bughra Khan as the governor of Bengal. The Mongols were defeated in the invasions of 1279 and 1285AD however he lost his son Muhammad in the battle. The death of his son broke him and he died in 1287.
We can thus say that Ghiasuddin Balban extended Iltutmush’s mission and was his true successor.
Facts and Information about Ghiyas ud din Balban
|Born||Turkestan (1200 AD)|
|Reign||266 to 1287 AD|
|Buried||The burial chamber of Ghiyas ud din Balban is famous as the Tomb of Balban present in Archaeological Park, Mehrauli, Delhi.|
|Successor||Muiz ud din Qaiqabad (grandson)|
|Son||Muhammad khan Nasiruddin Bughra Khan|
|Dynasty||Mamluk dynasty of Delhi.|
|Early life||He was the son of a Turkic noble of Central Asia of the Ilbari tribe. As a child, he was sold in slavery by the Mongols. The Sultan Iltutmish bought him in 1232 CE.
His education was extensive. Zaminbos, the Persian culture, was introduced by him.
He was appointed as the personal attendant to the Sultan.
He was elected as the Prime Minister of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246 to 1266). Later on he married Mahmud’s daughter.
|Declared Himself Sultan||After the death of Sultan Nasiruddin, Balban ascended the throne by declaring himself the Sultan of Delhi (1266).|
|Military Campaigns||He organised military campaigns against Mayo, who were the people of Mewat.|