Nasiruddin Humayun was the son of Babar. He belonged to Mughal dynasty and was the ruler of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northeastern part of India from 1530-1540 and again from 1555-1556. He succeeded his father, Babur, as a ruler of India in 1530, while his half brother Kamran Mirza got the territories of Kabul and Lahore. Upon his accession to the throne, Humayun had two main rivals namely Sultan Bahadur of East and Sher Shah Suri.
Humayun launched the attack on Sultan Bahadur and captured the fort of Mandu and Champaner with in a short span of time, while Bahadur escaped and took up refuge with the Portuguese. Humayun got success in this venture while on the other hand Sher Shah saw the opportunity and attacked Agra, the Mughal Capial. Though Humayun was able to save Agra but he has to lose Gaur, in Bengal to Sher Shah Suri. Subsequently, with the help of various war tactics Sher Shah was able to gain the control of Agra also. Humayun’s brother Kamran, who was the ruler of Kandhar did not help him and instead sided with Sher Shah. Humayun has to fled India and took refuge in Lahore. Then Sher Shah marched towards Lahore too, Humayun send him the message that “I have left you the whole of Hindustan. Leave Lahore alone and let Sirhind be the boundary between you and me”. In reply to this Sher Shah sent him the message that “I have left you the Kabul, you should go there. Humayun has to leave Lahore also and took refuge in Persia. With the help of king of Persia he tried to regain his lost military strength. He captured Kandhar. On the other hand Humayun’s brother Kamran sought to have him killed, but he repeatedly forgave all of his brothers for every fault of them.
Sher Shah ruled India from 1540-1545, he died in 1545, and his son succeeded him to the throne, but he was a weak ruler, and he too died in 1554. With his death the empire began to disintegrate and Humayun, sensing the opportunity sent an army under the leadership of his able General Bairam Khan. Bairam Khan was successful in getting the control of Delhi along with other areas. Humayun set on the throne of Delhi once again on 23rd July 1555. But his period of happiness was short lived, just six months after the ceremonial accession to the throne of Delhi, Humayun met with an accident in his library and died three days later on 25th February 1556. He was succeeded by his son Akbar.
Humayun’s life is chronicled in a book known as Humayun-Nama, by his sister Gulbadan. His name is alive in India as well as world even today due to his famous tomb, built by his widow after his death.