Central Bureau of Investigation



Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is one of the premier agencies concerned with the matters related to crime and national security that require unbiased investigation. It was realized by the Government of India in the early years of the World War II that the state government is inefficient to take care of the anti-social activities in India. This inefficiency of the various Law Enforcement Agencies of the State Governments paved the way for the creation of a central force. This force was expected to take care of the bribery and corruption that was slowly engulfing the entire nation.

The Central Bureau of Investigation in India was set up in the year 1963, on the 1st of April. It has its roots in the Special Police Establishment which dates back to the year 1941. The department of the Central Bureau of Investigation, India is under the observation of the Department of Personnel of the Union Government that in turn is headed by the State Minister. The Bureau reports to the Prime Minister of the country and is a vital part of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs that is under the observation of the Cabinet Minister. The Administration Division is taken care of by the Inspector General of Police, under the Delhi Special Police Establishment.

The executive officers, who are working for the Central Bureau of Investigation, have the right to exercise their powers as the in-charge of a police station. These executive officers of the CBI are similar in position with that of a Sub-Inspector. The Central Bureau of Investigation, however, can investigate only those cases that have been notified to the Central Government of India. In the year 1987, two divisions were opened in the CBI, namely, the Special Crimes Division and the Anti Corruption Division.

The Central Bureau of Investigation not only takes care of the cases related to bribery and crime but also those associated with the following:

  1. Frauds relating to Government of India departments
  2. Violation of the Central fiscal laws
  3. Passport frauds
  4. Frauds related to public joint stock companies
  5. Airlines crimes
  6. Crimes occurring at the high seas
  7. Some of the serious crimes that the organized gangs as well as professional criminals tend to commit


The Central Bureau of Investigation or CBI has been prompted to look after cases like the kidnappings, assassinations, crimes of the extremists, hijackings, large scale Insurance and Bank Frauds, violation of Official Secrets Act and various specific incidents. Some such specific incidents include the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and the Bhagalpur Blindings. Since the 1980s, the Central Bureau of Investigation of India is also taking care of the petitions of the grieved persons in the cases related to dowry deaths, murders and rape.

To ensure smooth working of CBI, the Indian government has allotted various departments to this agency, in accordance with the Directorate of Prosecution, in July 2001. These departments include the following:

  • Anti Corruption Division (Delhi Special Police Establishment) - To take care of the cases related to fraud and corruption committed by the employees of the Central Public Sector Undertakings, Central Government Departments and Central Financial Institutions
  • Directorate of Prosecution
  • Administration Division
  • Policy & Coordination Division
  • Central Forensic Science Laboratory
  • Special Crimes Division - In order to take care of the cases regarding the bomb blasts, terrorism, kidnapping for ransom, homicides and crimes of the mafia and the underworld
  • Economic Offenses Division - To take care of the cases relating to the financial frauds, bank frauds, Foreign Exchange Violations, Import Export frauds, massive smuggling of antiques, narcotics, other contraband items and the cultural property


Initially, the Central Bureau of Investigation was working with the General Offenses Wing only that looked after the corruption and bribery cases related to the Central Government and PSU employees. The Economic Offenses Wing was later added on the 29th of February, 1964, in order to take care of the cases regarding the violation of the different fiscal laws. The Food Offenses Wing was added to CBI in the year 1964, during the month of September, to look after the black marketing, hoarding, profiteering and smuggling of the food grains.



Last Updated on 28 September 2012