Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens

Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens are provided by the Constitution of India, that was adopted on the 26th of November, in the year 1949, but was put in use on the 26th of January, 1950. The Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens guaranty that the residents of the land can lead a peaceful life, as long as they inhabit the country. The individual Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens are most of the time similar in all the democratic countries.

The Individual Fundamental Rights to Indian Citizens include the following:
  • Equality before the law
  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom of association and peaceful assembly
  • Freedom of speech and expression
  • Right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights
According to the Indian Constitution, there are six basic Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens, which are right to equality, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to freedom, right to constitutional remedies and right against exploitation.

Article 12 to 35 of the Indian Constitution covers the Fundamental Rights of the citizen of the country. All these Fundamental Rights indicate that all the citizens are equally treated by the nation irrespective of caste, sex and creed. The basic Fundamental Rights enumerated in Part III of the Indian Constitution are categorized under 7 sections apart from the general segment. The sections are as follows:

General Rights:
  • Article 12: The Definition of Fundamental Rights is given in this Article
  • Article 13: The Article comprises Laws of inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights

Right to Equality:
  • Article 14: The provisions regarding Equality before Law are included in this Article
  • Article 15: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth is specified in this Article
  • Article 16: This Article consists of Rights of Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
  • Article 17: Abolition of untouchability is mentioned in this particular Article
  • Article 18: This Article provides details about Abolition of titles
Right to Freedom:
  • Article 19: Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. are clearly specified in the Article
  • Article 20: This Article states the Protection in respect of conviction for offenses
  • Article 21: Protection of life and personal liberty is mentioned in the Article
  • Article 22: This Article deals with Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation:
  • Article 23:The details of Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor are presented in this Article
  • Article 24:The Article contains Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.


Right to Freedom of Religion:
  • Article 25:Particulars of freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion are clearly enumerated in this Article
  • Article 26:The Article specifies the freedom to manage religious affairs
  • Article 27:Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion is stated in the Article
  • Article 28:This Article includes freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain education institutions
Cultural and Educational rights:
  • Article 29:Protection of interests of minorities is specified in detailed form in this Article
  • Article 30:Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions is scripted in this very Article
  • Article 31:The Article dealing with Compulsory acquisition of property has been repealed through the Constitution Act, 1978 under 44th Amendment
Saving of Certain Laws:
  • Article 31A:This Article contains savings of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
  • Article 31B:Validation of certain Acts and Regulations are mentioned in the Article
  • Article 31C:This Article deals with saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles
  • Article 31D:This Article deals with saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles
Right to Constitutional Remedies:
  • Article 32:Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this part have been included in the Article
  • Article 33:This particular Article addresses the Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to forces, etc.
  • Article 34:Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area is mentioned in the Article
  • Article 35:This Article indicates the Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part


Last Updated on 28 September 2012